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The central role of the hypothalamus in the origination and/or processing of feeding-related stimuli may be modulated by the activity of other functional areas of the brain including the insular cortex (involved in enteroceptive monitoring) and the prefrontal cortex (involved in the inhibition of inappropriate response tendencies). Regional cerebral blood(More)
Obesity is accompanied by damage to several tissues. Overweight is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Whether structural abnormalities associated with excess body fat may also occur in the brain is unknown. We sought to determine to what extent excess body fat is associated with regional alterations in brain(More)
The hypothalamus has a major role in the control of food intake. However, neurotracing studies have shown that the hypothalamus receives input from several other regions of the brain that are likely to modulate its activity. Of particular interest to the understanding of human eating behavior is the possible involvement of the cortex. Using positron(More)
Hyperinsulinemia and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are thought to be pathophysiological links between obesity and hypertension. In the present study, we examined the relation among heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and percent body fat (hydrodensitometry or DEXA), fasting plasma insulin concentration, and muscle sympathetic nerve(More)
Adiponectin is a collagen-like circulating protein secreted by adipocytes that is proposed to mediate obesity-related resistance to insulin. In a case-control series, we assessed the role of adiponectin in later development of type 2 diabetes in 70 patients who later developed type 2 diabetes and 70 controls, matched for body-mass index, age, and sex. Cases(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether dietary restraint, a landmark of successful dieting, is associated with specific patterns of brain responses to the sensory experience of food and meal consumption. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS Cross-sectional study of the brain's response to the sensory experience of food and meal consumption in nine successful dieters (age:(More)
The sensory experience of food is a primary reinforcer of eating and overeating plays a major role in the development of human obesity. However, whether the sensory experience of a forthcoming meal and the associated physiological phenomena (cephalic phase response, expectation of reward), which prepare the organism for the ingestion of food play a role in(More)
It has been proposed that liver dysfunction may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether elevated hepatic enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], or gamma -glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT]) are associated with prospective changes in liver or whole-body insulin(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between adiponectin, a known predictor of diabetes in Pima Indians, and markers of inflammation and endothelial function in nondiabetic subjects and to assess whether these markers predict later diabetes in a case-control study within a longitudinal health study in Pima Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants(More)
Obesity is predominantly caused by overeating, an abnormal behaviour for which there is no unequivocal neurophysiological explanation. Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have recently emerged as new tools to search for regions of the brain that are involved in the(More)