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The small heat shock protein family (sHsp) comprises molecular chaperones able to interact with incorrectly folded proteins. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by pathological lesions such as senile plaques (SPs), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), predominantly consisting of the incorrectly folded proteins(More)
Gliomas are a diverse group of brain tumors of glial origin. Most are characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth in the surrounding brain. In combination with their refractive nature to chemotherapy this makes it almost impossible to cure patients using combinations of conventional therapeutic strategies. The drastically increased knowledge about the(More)
Aberrant RAS/RAF signaling has been reported to be important for many tumor types including gliomas. Activation of the RAS/RAF pathway can result from oncogenic mutations of RAS/RAF itself. However, such mutations have only occasionally been reported in gliomas. In order to further elucidate the role of RAS/RAF pathway activation in a histopathological and(More)
In schwannomatosis, germline SMARCB1 mutations predispose to the development of multiple schwannomas, but not vestibular schwannomas. Many of these are missense or splice-site mutations or in-frame deletions, which are presumed to result in the synthesis of altered SMARCB1 proteins. However, also nonsense and frameshift mutations, which are characteristic(More)
In contrast to almost all other brain tumors, diffuse gliomas infiltrate extensively in the neuropil. This growth pattern is a major factor in therapeutic failure. Diffuse infiltrative glioma cells show some similarities with guerilla warriors. Histopathologically, the tumor cells tend to invade individually or in small groups in between the dense network(More)
The corticospinal tract develops over a rather long period of time, during which malformations involving this main central motor pathway may occur. In rodents, the spinal outgrowth of the corticospinal tract occurs entirely postnatally, but in primates largely prenatally. In mice, an increasing number of genes have been found to play a role during the(More)
Missense mutations of the V600E type constitute the vast majority of tumor-associated somatic alterations in the v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene. Initially described in melanoma, colon and papillary thyroid carcinoma, these alterations have also been observed in primary nervous system tumors albeit at a low frequency. We analyzed(More)
Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neuropathologists with expertise in molecular diagnosis was(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) accumulate in tumors and can contribute to the dismal immune responses observed in these tumors. We reported that the percentage of tumor infiltrating Tregs is strongly correlated with the WHO grade of the brain tumor. We now report on the clinical follow-up of this patient cohort (n=83). Subgroup analyses in patients with(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and persistence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). We performed a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of the HSPGs agrin, perlecan, glypican-1, and syndecans 1-3 in the lesions of(More)