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Folk psychology advocates the existence of gender differences in socio-cognitive functions such as 'reading' the mental states of others or discerning subtle differences in body-language. A female advantage has been demonstrated for emotion recognition from facial expressions, but virtually nothing is known about gender differences in recognizing bodily(More)
The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection of(More)
It has been argued that arm movements are important during human gait because they affect leg activity due to neural coupling between arms and legs. Consequently, one would expect that locomotor-like alternating arm swing is more effective than in-phase swing in affecting the legs' motor output. Other alternating movements such as trunk rotation associated(More)
BACKGROUND Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), and cueing has been reported to improve FOG during straight-line walking. Studies on how cueing affects FOG during turning are lacking. Given the asymmetrical nature of turning and the asymmetrical disease expression, we aimed to gain a new perspective on(More)
Humans walk bipedally, and thus, it is unclear why they swing their arms. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms and functions of arm swinging in human gait. First, we discuss the potential advantages of having swinging arms. Second, we go into the detail on the debate whether arm swing is arising actively or passively, where we will conclude that(More)
Arm movements during gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are altered compared to typically developing children (TD). We investigated whether these changes in arm movements alter interlimb coordination in CP gait. 3D gait analysis was performed in CP (diplegia [DI]: N = 15 and hemiplegia [HE]: N = 11) and TD (N = 24) children at preferred and fast(More)
Leg kinematics during backward walking (BW) are very similar to the time-reversed kinematics during forward walking (FW). This suggests that the underlying muscle activation pattern could originate from a simple time reversal, as well. Experimental electromyography studies have confirmed that this is the case for some muscles. Furthermore, it has been(More)
BACKGROUND Toddlers learning to walk adopt specific 'guard' arm postures to maintain their balance during forward progression. In Cerebral Palsy (CP), the cause of the altered arm postures during walking has not been studied. AIM To investigate whether the altered arm posture in children with CP is a compensation for instability during walking. METHODS(More)
Children with hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (CP) walk with marked asymmetries. For instance, we have recently shown that they have less arm swing on the affected side, and more arm swing at the unaffected side. Such an increase in arm swing at the unaffected side may be aimed at controlling total body angular momentum about the vertical axis, although it was(More)
Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) have difficulties walking at a normal or high speed. It is known that arm movements play an important role to achieve higher walking speeds in healthy subjects. However, the role played by arm movements while walking at different speeds has received no attention in children with CP. Therefore we investigated the use of arm(More)