Pieter G. N. Kramers

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OBJECTIVES This study estimated the burden of disease due to 48 major causes in the Netherlands in 1994 in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), using national epidemiologic data and disability weights, and explored associated problems and uncertainties. METHODS We combined data from Dutch vital statistics, registrations, and surveys with Dutch(More)
We present a framework to aggregate divergent health impacts associated with different types of environmental exposures, such as air pollution, residential noise, and large technologic risks. From the policy maker's point of view, there are at least three good reasons for this type of aggregation: comparative risk evaluation (for example, setting(More)
BACKGROUND Within the EU Health Monitoring Programme (HMP), the ECHI project has proposed a comprehensive list of 'European Community Health Indicators'. METHODS In the design of the indicator set, a set of explicit criteria was applied. These included: i) be comprehensive and coherent, i.e. cover all domains of the public health field; ii) take account(More)
The vinyl monomer acrylamide (AA) was studied for its activity in a range of genotoxicity tests, including the Salmonella/microsome test, the fluctuation test using Klebsiella pneumoniae, the test for gene mutations at the TK and HPRT loci in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells, tests for chromosomal aberrations and SCEs in V79 Chinese hamster cells, the sex-linked(More)
Genotoxic chemicals can damage the genetic material of humans as well as that of organisms living in the environment. With respect to adverse effects, alterations induced in the germ line, leading to alterations in the genetic make-up of populations, are of primary concern in ecosystems, because somatic changes, even if they lead to a loss of individuals,(More)
A series of mutation experiments was carried out with Drosophila melanogaster using inhalation exposure. 1,2-Dichloroethane (DCE) and 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) were active in the sex-linked recessive lethal assay (SLRLT), whereas dichloromethane, dibromomethane, 1,2-dichloropropane and 1,3-dichloropropane were not. Compared to DBE, DCE is a less potent(More)
One of the interests of ICPEMC is to identify situations in which the possible induction of inherited defects in man by mutagen exposure could actually be studied. The large-scale use of mutagenic drugs in field programmes against schistosomiasis, mainly during the 1970's, was considered a possible case. An ICPEMC task group approached the problem by (1)(More)
BACKGROUND Public health policies aim to improve and maintain the health of citizens. Relevant data and indicators are needed for a health policy that is based on factual information. After 14 years of work (1998-2012), the multi-phase action on European Community Health Indicators (ECHI) has created a health monitoring and reporting system. It has(More)
328 X-linked recessive lethal mutations induced in late spermatids by hycanthone methanesulfonate were tested for coverage by duplications that comprised, in total, about 24% of the euchromatic X chromosome; 78 lethals appeared to be covered. Crossover localization tests of a random sample of 38 non-covered lethals revealed 4 chromosomes carrying a lethal(More)
Seventeen different reports are available dealing with the mutagenic effects of saccharin. Many of these are short abstracts, carrying incomplete information. Mainly tested as its sodium salt, saccharin has been found to be weakly mutagenic in Salmonella at very high doses, in Drosophila at moderate doses, and in mice at moderate to high doses. The compound(More)