Pieter Bas Kwak

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Small RNAs, such as microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, act through Argonaute (Ago) proteins as a part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). To make RISCs, Ago proteins bind and subsequently unwind small RNA duplexes, finally leaving one strand stably incorporated. Here we identified the N domain of human AGO2 as the initiator of duplex unwinding(More)
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is one of the most important economic crops and provides excellent fibers for textile manufacture. In addition to its industrial and agricultural importance, the fiber cell (plant trichome) also is a biological model system for exploring gene expression and regulation. Small RNAs regulate many aspects of plant growth and(More)
Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a negative feedback loop in which PERIOD (PER) proteins accumulate, form a large nuclear complex (PER complex), and bind the transcription factor CLOCK-BMAL1, repressing their own expression. We found that mouse PER complexes include the Mi-2/nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase (NuRD) transcriptional(More)
In mammals, circadian rhythms are generated at least in part by a cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loop in which the three PERIOD (PER) and two CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) proteins inhibit the activity of the dimeric transcription factor CLOCK-BMAL1, thereby repressing their own expression. Upon nuclear entry, the PER and CRY proteins form a large protein(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22nt long, non-coding RNAs that guide post-transcriptional gene silencing of their target genes and regulate diverse biological processes including cancer. miRNAs do not act alone, but require assembly into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In this review, we summarize how miRNAs are produced, assembled into RISC, and regulate(More)
The mammalian circadian clock is built on a feedback loop in which PER and CRY proteins repress their own transcription. We found that in mouse liver nuclei all three PERs, both CRYs, and Casein Kinase-1δ (CK1δ) are present together in an ∼1.9-MDa repressor assembly that quantitatively incorporates its CLOCK-BMAL1 transcription factor target. Prior to(More)
The proteins CLOCK and BMAL1 form a heterodimeric transcription factor essential to circadian rhythms in mammals.  Daily rhythms of CLOCK-BMAL1 DNA binding activity are known to oscillate with target gene expression in vivo. Here we present a highly sensitive assay that recapitulates native CLOCK-BMAL1 DNA binding rhythms from crude tissue extracts, which(More)
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