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We have developed a prototype optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for the imaging of hard and soft tissue in the oral cavity. High-resolution images of in vitro porcine periodontal tissues have been obtained with this system. The images clearly show the enamel-cementum and the gingiva-tooth interfaces, indicating OCT is a potentially useful technique(More)
Modern means of communication rely on electric fields and currents to carry the flow of information. In contrast, biological systems follow a different paradigm that uses ion gradients and currents, flows of small molecules, and membrane electric potentials. Living organisms use a sophisticated arsenal of membrane receptors, channels, and pumps to control(More)
Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There are few studies of the long-term consequences of(More)
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are increasingly used in medical applications, such as targeting delivery and imaging. In the future, patients are more likely to be exposed to pharmaceutical products containing such particles. The study of toxicity of SPIONs has become of great importance in recent years, although the published data in(More)
The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on cellular integrity and texture of Ranchero and Sabroso onions (Allium cepa L.) was investigated. Electrical properties, ion leakage rate, texture, and amount of enzymatically formed pyruvate were measured before and after PEF treatment for a range of applied field strengths and number of pulses. Critical(More)
Recent advances mean that arrays of nearly uniform cylindrical, conical and pyramidal shaped pores can be produced in several types of substrates. Surface modification of nanopore surfaces can give unique mass transport characteristics that have recently been explored for biomolecule separation, detection and purification. Recent interest has focused on the(More)
Use of biological machines and environments in novel bioinorganic nanostructures is critical for development of new types of biosensors, bio-NEMS devices, and functional materials. Lipid bilayers that mimic a cell membrane have already played an important role in such applications. We present supported lipid bilayers that spontaneously assemble in a(More)
The performance of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is often assessed by their narrow size distribution, suitable magnetic saturation and low toxicity effects. In this work, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with different size, shape and saturation magnetization levels were synthesized via a co-precipitation technique using(More)
As the use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in biomedical applications increases (e.g. for targeting drug delivery and imaging), patients are likely to be exposed to products containing SPION. Despite their high biomedical importance, toxicity data for SPION are limited to date. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity(More)
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with narrow size distribution and stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were synthesized. The particles were prepared by a coprecipitation technique using ferric and ferrous salts with a molar Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio of 2. Using a design of experiments (DOE) approach, the effect of different synthesis parameters(More)