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The distribution of nerves containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was examined in the human urinary bladder, using both single- and double-label immunohistochemistry. Nerves containing CGRP and tachykinins were typically present within the subepithelial region,(More)
The distribution of nerves with the potential to synthesize nitric oxide was examined within the urinary bladder and proximal urethra of humans and guinea-pigs, using an antibody to nitric oxide synthase. Further experiments identified cells in which cGMP-immunoreactivity was induced following exposure to the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside. These(More)
The expression of neuropeptides, and the enzymes nitric oxide synthase and tyrosine hydroxylase were examined in intramural ganglia of human urinary bladder using single label immunocytochemistry. Scattered ganglia composed of between 1-36 neurons (median 4) were observed in all layers of the lateral wall of the bladder. These contained immunoreactivity to(More)
The normal development of somatostatin (SOM) expression in neurons of the chick ciliary ganglion and the effects of ciliary neuronotrophic factor (CNTF) on SOM induction in cultured ciliary ganglion neurons, were studied by immunocytochemical techniques. SOM immunoreactivity was first detectable in some neurons of the ganglion at embryonic day (E)8 and(More)
— This paper introduces a new paradigm for service oriented networking being developed in the FUSION project 1. Despite recent proposals in the area of information centric networking, a similar treatment of services – where networked software functions, rather than content, are dynamically deployed, replicated and invoked – has received little attention by(More)
We have found that a CNTF-like molecule which supports ciliary and sympathetic neurons is not retrogradely transported in either sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves. The factor has an apparent Mr of 21 kDa, a pI of 4.9, and is present in peripheral nerves and smooth muscle of the chick. Our experiments indicate that CNTF-like activity does not accumulate(More)