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Magnetic reconnection leads to energy conversion in large volumes in space but is initiated in small diffusion regions. Because of the small sizes of the diffusion regions, their crossings by spacecraft are rare. We report four-spacecraft observations of a diffusion region encounter at the Earth's magnetopause that allow us to reliably distinguish spatial(More)
The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are(More)
Conjunctions in the cusp between the four Cluster spacecraft and SuperDARN ground-based radars offer unique opportunities to compare the signatures of transient plasma injections simultaneously in the high-altitude day-side magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. We report here on such observations on 17 March 2001, when the IMF initially northward and(More)
We report on recent measurements of solitary waves made by the Wideband Plasma Wave Receiver located on each of the four Cluster spacecraft at 4.5–6.5 R E (well above the auroral acceleration region) as they cross field lines that map to the auroral zones. These solitary waves are observed in the Wideband data as isolated bipolar and tripo-lar waveforms.(More)
Solitary nonlinear (deltaB/B>>1) electromagnetic pulses have been detected in Earth's geomagnetic tail accompanying plasmas flowing at super-Alfvénic speeds. The pulses in the current sheet had durations of approximately 5 s, were left-hand circularly polarized, and had phase speeds of approximately the Alfvén speed in the plasma frame. These pulses were(More)
Part of Special Issue " Nonlinear and multiscale phenomena in space plasmas " Abstract. We study plasma transport at a thin magnetopause (MP), described hereafter as a thin current sheet (TCS), observed by Cluster at the southern cusp on 13 February 2001 around 20:01 UT. The Cluster observations generally agree with the predictions of the Gas Dynamic(More)
Whistler emissions close to the magnetopause on the magnetospheric side are investigated using the four Cluster spacecraft. The waves are found to be generated in thin (electron-scale) sheets moving with the plasma drift velocity. A feature in the electron data coincides with the waves; hot magnetospheric electrons disappear for a few satellite spins. This(More)
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