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Oligodendrocytes (OLs) extend arborized processes that are supported by microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments. Little is known about proteins that modulate and interact with the cytoskeleton during myelination. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) in mediating process formation in OLs. In this(More)
Signaling pathways are controlled by a vast array of posttranslational mechanisms. By contrast, little is known regarding the mechanisms that regulate the expression of their core components. We conducted an RNAi screen in Drosophila for factors modulating RAS/MAPK signaling and identified the Exon Junction Complex (EJC) as a key element of this pathway.(More)
Rtt109, also known as KAT11, is a recently characterized fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that modifies histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) to promote genome stability. Rtt109 does not show sequence conservation with other known HATs and depends on association with either of two histone chaperones, Asf1 or Vps75, for HAT activity. Here we report the(More)
The ability to process microbial antigens and present them at the surface of cells is an important aspect of our innate ability to clear infections. It is generally accepted that antigens in the cytoplasm are loaded in the endoplasmic reticulum and presented at the cell surface on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, whereas peptides(More)
In many problems that require extensive searching, the solution can be described as satisfying two competing constraints, where satisfying each independently does not pose a challenge. As an alternative to tree-based and stochastic searching, for these problems we propose using an iterated map built from the projections to the two constraint sets.(More)
Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me) is an evolutionarily conserved modification whose role in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied. In contrast, the function of H3K4 acetylation (H3K4ac) has received little attention because of a lack of tools to separate its function from that of H3K4me. Here we show that, in addition to(More)
A protein fraction purified from bovine brain myelin, previously called arretin because of its ability to inhibit neurite outgrowth, has been identified as consisting predominantly of oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp). We show that it is a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth from rat cerebellar granule and hippocampal cells; from dorsal root(More)
Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) are two popular microscopy techniques that have evolved quite independently. CDI promises to reach resolutions below 10 nanometers, but the reconstruction procedures put stringent requirements on data quality and sample preparation. In contrast, STXM features(More)
X-ray tomography is an invaluable tool in biomedical imaging. It can deliver the three-dimensional internal structure of entire organisms as well as that of single cells, and even gives access to quantitative information, crucially important both for medical applications and for basic research. Most frequently such information is based on X-ray attenuation.(More)
BACKGROUND The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a Ser/Thr kinase that controls cell growth in response to mitogens, as well as amino acid and energy sufficiency. The scaffolding protein Raptor binds to mTOR and recruits substrates to the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Although Raptor has been shown to be essential for mTORC1 activity,(More)