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The immune system is known to be involved in the early phase of scrapie pathogenesis. However, the infection route of naturally occurring scrapie and its spread within the host are not entirely known. In this study, the pathogenesis of scrapie was investigated in sheep of three PrP genotypes, from 2 to 9 months of age, which were born and raised together in(More)
Five cases of scrapie with unusual features have been diagnosed in Norway since 1998. The affected sheep showed neurological signs dominated by ataxia, and had the PrP genotypes homozygous A136 H154 Q171/ A136H154Q171 or heterozygous A136H154Q171/A136R154Q171, which are rarely associated with scrapie. Brain histopathology revealed neuropil vacuolisation(More)
Susceptibility to scrapie is largely controlled by the PRNP gene in mice and in several other species. However, individuals with identical scrapie susceptibility Prnp alleles may have very different incubation periods, suggesting the influence of other environmental and genetic factors. To detect loci influencing susceptibility to TSE, two mouse lines(More)
Complement activation generates two potent inflammatory mediators from C5, C5a and its derivative C5a(desArg), which results from the removal of the C-terminal arginine by ubiquitous carboxypeptidases. In this paper we describe the purification of milligram amounts of bovine C5a(desArg) by a simplified procedure, and the preparation of mouse monoclonal(More)
Scrapie is the most common transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in livestock. Natural contamination in sheep flocks is presumed to occur by maternal transmission to offspring. However, horizontal prion transmission from animal to animal exists and may be significant in sustaining and spreading contagion in the field. Artificial insemination is(More)
Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrP(c)), into a misfolded(More)
Cellular prion protein (Prp(C)) is a glycoprotein usually associated with membranes via its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. The trans-conformational form of this protein (Prp(SC)) is the suggested agent responsible for transmissible neurodegenerative spongiform encephalopathies. This protein has been shown on sperm and in the reproductive fluids(More)
The presence of prion protein in sperm and fluids collected from different parts of the ram genital tract was investigated by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies. A slightly immunoreactive 25- to 30-kDa protein was recognized on Western blots of testicular and epididymal sperm extracts. Immunoreactivity increased on ejaculated sperm extracts and 2(More)
Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge(More)