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Multiple lines of evidence support a role for CD8(+) T cells in control of acute/early HIV replication; however, features of the primary HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell response that may impact on the efficiency of containment of early viral replication remain poorly defined. In this study, we performed a novel, comprehensive analysis of the kinetics of(More)
The ability of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses to recognize epitope variants resulting from viral sequence variation in vivo may affect the ease with which HIV-1 can escape T cell control and impact on the rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected humans. Here, we studied the functional cross-reactivity of CD8 responses to HIV-1 epitopes(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and(More)
Following mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission, type 1 interferons (IFNs) are rapidly induced at sites of initial virus replication in the mucosa and draining lymph nodes. However, the role played by IFN-stimulated antiviral activity in restricting HIV-1 replication during the initial stages of infection is not clear. We(More)
Fifty-two patients at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who had one or several epileptic seizures in the course of that disease were retrospectively studied from 1985 to 1990. Thirty-five percent of these patients were in overt clinical AIDS at the time of the seizure(s). AIDS was revealed by a seizure in 2 cases. Generalized(More)
Surrogate markers generally used for observation of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their plasma and cellular viral load were assayed in a series of 40 patients before initiation of zidovudine therapy. Plasma viremia was positive in 62.5% of patients and was statistically correlated with clinical stage, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+(More)
In the present study, we analyzed the functional profile of CD8+ T-cell responses directed against autologous transmitted/founder HIV-1 isolates during acute and early infection, and examined whether multifunctionality is required for selection of virus escape mutations. Seven anti-retroviral therapy-naïve subjects were studied in detail between 1 and 87(More)
Specific CD8 T-cell responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are induced in primary infection and make an important contribution to the control of early viral replication. The importance of neutralizing antibodies in containing primary viremia is questioned because they usually arise much later. Nevertheless antienvelope antibodies develop(More)
The HIV-1 RNA in plasma and CSF samples from 40 HIV-1 infected patients was measured by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The possible implication of cytokines in HIV-1 replication was investigated by measuring the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage colony stimulation factor (M-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in(More)