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Micromolar concentrations of extracellular Zn2+ are known to antagonize native NMDA receptors via a dual mechanism involving both a voltage-independent and a voltage-dependent inhibition. We have tried to evaluate the relative importance of these two effects and their subunit specificity on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells and Xenopus(More)
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are heteromeric assemblies of NR1 and NR2(A-D) subunits with properties heavily influenced by the type of NR2 subunit incorporated. While NMDARs with only one type of NR2 subunit have been extensively characterized, little is known about receptors containing two different NR2 subunits, despite compelling evidence that such(More)
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels and are crucial for neuronal communication. NMDARs form tetrameric complexes that consist of several homologous subunits. The subunit composition of NMDARs is plastic, resulting in a large number of receptor subtypes. As each receptor subtype has distinct biophysical, pharmacological and signalling(More)
The past few years have witnessed dramatic progress on all frontiers of zinc neurobiology. The recent development of powerful tools, including zinc-sensitive fluorescent probes, selective chelators and genetically modified animal models, has brought a deeper understanding of the roles of this cation as a crucial intra- and intercellular signalling ion of(More)
Eukaryotic ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits possess a large N-terminal domain (NTD) distinct from the neighboring agonist-binding domain. In NMDA receptors, the NTDs of NR2A and NR2B form modulatory domains binding allosteric inhibitors. Despite a high sequence homology, these two domains have been shown to bind two ligands of strikingly different(More)
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) are a major class of excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. They form glutamate-gated ion channels that are highly permeable to calcium and mediate activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. NMDAR dysfunction is implicated in multiple brain disorders, including stroke, chronic pain(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) bind agonists in a domain that has been crystallized and shown to have a bilobed structure. Eukaryotic iGluRs also possess a second extracellular N-terminal domain related to the bacterial periplasmic binding protein LIVBP. In NMDA receptors, the high-affinity Zn inhibition is eliminated by mutations in the LIVBP-like(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels are composed of four pore-forming subunits. Binding of cyclic nucleotide to a site in the intracellular carboxyl terminus of each subunit leads to channel activation. Since there are four subunits, four binding events are possible. In this study, we investigate the effects of individual binding events on activation by(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels gated by glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are widespread in the CNS and are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes including synaptic plasticity, chronic pain and psychosis. Aberrant NMDAR activity also plays an(More)