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Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a cancer with rising incidence and poor survival. Most such cancers arise in a specialized intestinal metaplastic epithelium, which is diagnostic of Barrett's esophagus. In a genome-wide association study, we compared esophageal adenocarcinoma cases (n = 2,390) and individuals with precancerous Barrett's esophagus (n = 3,175)(More)
BACKGROUND Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a commonly undiagnosed condition that predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Routine endoscopic screening for BE is not recommended because of the burden this would impose on the health care system. The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel approach using a minimally invasive cell sampling device,(More)
Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is caused by germline E-cadherin (CDH1) mutations in 25-40% of tested families. Management options for asymptomatic mutation carriers are fraught, since endoscopic surveillance can miss cancer foci and prophylactic gastrectomy has profound clinical sequelae. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of(More)
Around 25-40% of cases of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are caused by heterozygous E-cadherin (CDH1) germline mutations. The mechanisms for loss of the second allele still remain unclear. The aims of this study were to elucidate mechanisms for somatic inactivation of the wild-type CDH1 allele and to seek evidence for cadherin switching. Archival(More)
Cancer genome sequencing studies have identified numerous driver genes, but the relative timing of mutations in carcinogenesis remains unclear. The gradual progression from premalignant Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) provides an ideal model to study the ordering of somatic mutations. We identified recurrently mutated genes and(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The risk of progression of Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is low and difficult to calculate. Accurate tools to determine risk are needed to optimize surveillance and intervention. We assessed the ability of candidate biomarkers to predict which cases of BE will progress to EAC or high-grade dysplasia and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the accuracy and acceptability to patients of non-endoscopic screening for Barrett's oesophagus, using an ingestible oesophageal sampling device (Cytosponge) coupled with immunocytochemisty for trefoil factor 3. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING 12 UK general practices, with gastroscopies carried out in one hospital(More)
The stromal compartment is increasingly recognized to play a role in cancer. However, its role in the transition from preinvasive to invasive disease is unknown. Most gastrointestinal tumors have clearly defined premalignant stages, and Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an ideal research model. Supervised clustering of gene expression profiles from microdissected(More)
Barrett's esophagus is an example of a pre-invasive state, for which current endoscopic surveillance methods to detect dysplasia are time consuming and inadequate. The prognosis of cancer arising in Barrett's esophagus is improved by early detection at the stage of mucosal carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia. Molecular imaging methods could revolutionize the(More)
PURPOSE Endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus (BE) by histopathologic biopsy assessment is suboptimal. A proliferation marker, minichromosome maintenance protein 2, has potential as a biomarker but lacks specificity. We hypothesized that cyclin A, which detects a proportion of proliferating cells, would be more specific. Because cytologic sampling(More)