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Based on the high sequence homology between the yeast ORF YBR296c (accession number P38361 in the SWISS-PROT database) and the PHO4 gene of Neurospora crassa, which codes for a Na+/Pi cotransporter with twelve putative transmembrane domains, the YBR296c ORF was considered to be a promising candidate gene for a plasma membrane-bound phosphate transporter in(More)
Clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCCs) can display intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). We applied multiregion exome sequencing (M-seq) to resolve the genetic architecture and evolutionary histories of ten ccRCCs. Ultra-deep sequencing identified ITH in all cases. We found that 73-75% of identified ccRCC driver aberrations were subclonal, confounding estimates of(More)
BACKGROUND Candidate biomarkers have been identified for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients, but most have not been validated. OBJECTIVE To validate published ccRCC prognostic biomarkers in an independent patient cohort and to assess intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) of the most promising markers to guide biomarker optimisation. DESIGN,(More)
Defining mechanisms that generate intratumour heterogeneity and branched evolution may inspire novel therapeutic approaches to limit tumour diversity and adaptation. SETD2 (Su(var), Enhancer of zeste, Trithorax-domain containing 2) trimethylates histone-3 lysine-36 (H3K36me3) at sites of active transcription and is mutated in diverse tumour types, including(More)
Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk of developing adenocarcinoma in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus is low and difficult to predict. Accurate tools for risk stratification are needed to increase the efficiency of surveillance. We aimed to develop a prediction model for progression using clinical variables and genetic markers. METHODS In a prospective cohort of(More)
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common pathological subtype of kidney cancer. Here, we integrated an unbiased genome-wide RNA interference screen for ccRCC survival regulators with an analysis of recurrently overexpressed genes in ccRCC to identify new therapeutic targets in this disease. One of the most potent survival regulators, the(More)
The effects of solvation on molecular recognition are investigated from different perspectives, ranging from methods to analyse explicit solvent dynamical behaviour at the protein surface to methods for the implicit treatment of solvent effects associated with the conformational behaviour of biomolecules. The here presented implicit solvation method is(More)
Surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus allows us to study the evolutionary dynamics of a human neoplasm over time. Here we use multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization on brush cytology specimens, from two time points with a median interval of 37 months in 195 non-dysplastic Barrett's patients, and a third time point in a subset of 90 patients at a(More)
OBJECTIVE Barrett's oesophagus commonly presents as a patchwork of columnar metaplasia with and without goblet cells in the distal oesophagus. The presence of metaplastic columnar epithelium with goblet cells on oesophageal biopsy is a marker of cancer progression risk, but it is unclear whether clonal expansion and progression in Barrett's oesophagus is(More)