Pierre Liénard

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Ritualized behavior, intuitively recognizable by its stereotypy, rigidity, repetition, and apparent lack of rational motivation, is found in a variety of life conditions, customs, and everyday practices: in cultural rituals, whether religious or non-religious; in many children's complicated routines; in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD);(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE   It is widely acknowledged that individual response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is influenced by genetic factors. However, most of the underlying genes and genetic variants remain unidentified to date. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of common variants in a number of candidate genes in the response to commonly(More)
The absence of human placentophagy, the maternal consumption of the afterbirth, is puzzling given its ubiquity and probable adaptive value in other mammals. We propose that human fire use may have led to placentophagy avoidance in our species. In our environment of evolutionary adaptedness, gravid women would likely have been regularly exposed to smoke and(More)
Human typical life history involves specific tradeoffs, resulting in the selection of specific cognitive adaptations, among which a suite of age- and gender-specific precaution systems sensitive to variations in the physical and social environment. Precaution systems take into account the individual's status and life-stage, information about specific(More)
BACKGROUND Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied(More)
Standard measures of generalized trust in others are often taken to provide reliable indicators of economic attitudes in different countries. Here we compared three highly distinct groups, in Kenya, China and the US, in terms of more specific attitudes, [a] people's willingness to invest in the future, [b] their willingness to invest in others, and [c](More)
Relying on data collected among the pastoralist Turkana of Kenya, Mathew and Boyd (1) claimed that, in prestate societies, cooperation in warfare is enforced by costly third-party punishment. Such behavior would be functional and would have been selected by cultural group selection. Functionalism has a long history in anthropology. Cultural phenomena such(More)
The drag queen cultural phenomenon has been described at length. However, the depiction of outlandish and hyperbolic womanhood and taunting and formidable behavior at the core of drag queens' public persona has still to be fully accounted for. We argue that these aspects of the drag queen's public appearance could best be understood in a signaling(More)
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