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Ritualized behavior, intuitively recognizable by its stereotypy, rigidity, repetition, and apparent lack of rational motivation, is found in a variety of life conditions, customs, and everyday practices: in cultural rituals, whether religious or non-religious; in many children's complicated routines; in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD);(More)
Human typical life history involves specific tradeoffs, resulting in the selection of specific cognitive adaptations, among which a suite of age- and gender-specific precaution systems sensitive to variations in the physical and social environment. Precaution systems take into account the individual's status and life-stage, information about specific(More)
Chemical degradation and stability in formulation is a recurrent issue in pharmaceutical development of drugs. The objective of the present study was to develop an in silico risk assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) stability with respect to autoxidation. The chemical degradation by autoxidation of a diverse series of APIs has been(More)
BACKGROUND Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied(More)
Relying on data collected among the pastoralist Turkana of Kenya, Mathew and Boyd (1) claimed that, in prestate societies, cooperation in warfare is enforced by costly third-party punishment. Such behavior would be functional and would have been selected by cultural group selection. Functionalism has a long history in anthropology. Cultural phenomena such(More)
Standard measures of generalized trust in others are often taken to provide reliable indicators of economic attitudes in different countries. Here we compared three highly distinct groups, in Kenya, China and the US, in terms of more specific attitudes, [a] people's willingness to invest in the future, [b] their willingness to invest in others, and [c](More)
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