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Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) presents as a severe neurological brain disease and is a genetic mimic of the sequelae of transplacentally acquired viral infection. Evidence exists for a perturbation of innate immunity as a primary pathogenic event in the disease phenotype. Here, we show that TREX1, encoding the major mammalian 3' --> 5' DNA exonuclease,(More)
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and thereby potentially alter the information content and structure of cellular RNAs. Notably, although the overwhelming majority of such editing events occur in transcripts derived from Alu repeat elements, the biological(More)
Some Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide immunity to experimental infections in animal models, but their contribution to host defense in natural ecosystems is unknown. We report a dominant-negative TLR3 allele in otherwise healthy children with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. TLR3 is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where(More)
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an autosomal recessive neurological disorder, the clinical and immunological features of which parallel those of congenital viral infection. Here we define the composition of the human ribonuclease H2 enzyme complex and show that AGS can result from mutations in the genes encoding any one of its three subunits. Our(More)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that induces in humans a disease characterized by fever, rash, and pain in muscles and joints. The recent emergence or reemergence of CHIKV in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has stressed the need to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Previous CHIKV disease models have used young(More)
Management of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) has been considerably improved by the availability of acyclovir therapy and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assays. Prognostic factors for this rare affliction are, however, misestimated. We conducted a large retrospective multicenter study that included 93 adult patients in whom HSE was(More)
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a mendelian mimic of congenital infection and also shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both a clinical and biochemical level. The recent identification of mutations in TREX1 and genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex and studies of the function of TREX1 in DNA metabolism have defined a previously unknown mechanism(More)
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of sporadic viral encephalitis in western countries. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, as it affects otherwise healthy patients and only a small minority of HSV-1-infected individuals. Here, we elucidate a genetic etiology for HSE in two children with autosomal recessive deficiency in(More)
African green monkeys (AGMs) infected with the AGM type of SIV (SIVagm) do not develop chronic immune activation and AIDS, despite viral loads similar to those detected in humans infected with HIV-1 and rhesus macaques (RMs) infected with the RM type of SIV (SIVmac). Because chronic immune activation drives progressive CD4+ T cell depletion and immune cell(More)
The PML protein concentrates within discrete nuclear structures known as nuclear bodies, also called NDs or PODs, which contain several proteins including the interferon (IFN)-inducible SP100 product. The function of these structures remains elusive. We and others have shown recently that they represent specific targets for adenovirus and herpes simplex(More)