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In this short review of fish gill morphology we cover some basic gross anatomy as well as in some more detail the microscopic anatomy of the branchial epithelia from representatives of the major extant groups of fishes (Agnathans, Elasmobranchs, and Teleosts). The agnathan hagfishes have primitive gill pouches, while the lampreys have arch-like gills(More)
The Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami, formerly Oreochromis alcalicus grahami) is a remarkable example of teleost life in an extreme environment. Typical conditions include water pH=10, titration alkalinity>300 mM, osmolality=525 mOsm, temperatures ranging from 23 degrees to 42 degrees C, and O(2) levels fluctuating diurnally between extreme hyperoxia and(More)
Alcolapia grahami is a unique ureotelic tilapia that lives in the highly alkaline, saline Lake Magadi, Kenya (pH, approximately 10.0; alkalinity, approximately 380 mmol L(-1); Na(+), approximately 350 mmol L(-1); Cl(-), approximately 110 mmol L(-1); osmolality, approximately 580 mosm kg(-1)). The fish survived well upon gradual exposure to dilute lake water(More)
Much of the early research elucidating the general mechanisms of euryhalinity was performed on the common killifish. More recently, its opercular epithelium with abundant mitochondria-rich cells has proven to be a powerful model for analyzing the mechanisms of active NaCl transport under Ussing conditions in vitro (i.e., with isotonic saline on both(More)
Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) is a model organism for ionoregulatory studies, particularly because of its opercular epithelium, although the gills are the major sites of ion exchange. Whereas Na+ and Cl- are excreted through the gills in seawater (SW), the killifish is unusual in taking up only Na+ and not Cl- at the gills in freshwater (FW). We(More)
PURPOSE In the holangiotic retina, little is known about the connections between and the circulation within microvessel layers. The goal of the present study was to explore the three-dimensional arrangement and hemodynamics of mouse retinal microvessels. METHODS Confocal microscopy was performed on fluorescein dextran-filled retinal flatmounts. Capillary(More)
"Observer based model predictive control of the water Based painting drying using a humidity profile soft sensor and a temperature measurement", This paper deals with the model predictive control of an infrared drying process of a water based epoxy-amine painting. During the drying cycle, the control problem is to optimize the use of the process under(More)
"Predictive control of a nonlinear distributed parameter system: Real time control of a painting film drying process", Abstract This paper deals with the model predictive control of processes. The new step is the use of a distributed parameter system instead of a lumped parameter system. The internal model control structure is also used to solve the(More)
We investigated the transepithelial potential (TEP) and its responses to changes in the external medium in Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish living in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Magadi water is extremely alkaline (pH = 9.92) and otherwise unusual: titratable alkalinity (290 mequiv L−1, i.e. HCO3 − and CO3 2−) rather than Cl− (112 mmol L−1) represents the(More)