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The neurons responsible for the onset of sleep are thought to be located in the preoptic area and more specifically, in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Here we identify sleep-promoting neurons in vitro and show that they represent an homogeneous population of cells that must be inhibited by systems of arousal during the waking state. We find that(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus through its extensive efferents has been implicated in a great variety of physiological and behavioural functions. However, little is know about its afferents. Therefore, to identify the systems likely to influence the activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus, we re-examined the forebrain afferents to the dorsal(More)
To localize glycinergic cell bodies and fibers in the rat brain, we developed a sensitive immunohistochemical method combining the use of specific glycine antibodies (Campistron G. et al. (1986) Brain Res. 376, 400-405; Wenthold R. J. et al. (1987) Neuroscience 22, 897-912) with the streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase technique and(More)
The aim of the present study was to identify the specific afferent projections to the rostral and caudal nucleus raphe magnus, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus pars alpha and the rostral nucleus raphe pallidus. For this purpose, small iontophoretic injections of the sensitive retrograde tracer choleratoxin (subunit b) were made in each of these(More)
In this report, we demonstrate that cholera-toxin B subunit (CTb) is a very sensitive retrograde tracer in the central nervous system when recognized by streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry. We further show that: (1) injection of a small volume of CTb gives rise to small sharply defined injection sites limited to the cell group of interest(More)
Using a sensitive double immunostaining technique with unconjugated cholera-toxin B subunit as a retrograde tracer, the authors determined the nuclei of origin of monoaminergic, peptidergic, and cholinergic afferent projections to the cat facial nucleus (FN). The FN as a whole receives substantial afferent projections, with relative subnuclear differences,(More)
Supraspinal afferents to the pontine micturition center, Barrington's nucleus, were investigated in the rat by visualization of the retrograde tracer, cholera-toxin subunit B, in neurons following iontophoretic injection into Barrington's nucleus. Tissue sections from five rats with injections primarily localized in Barrington's nucleus revealed numerous(More)
The presence of biologically active nerve growth factor (NGF) in the peripheral circulation of women during pregnancy, labour and lactation was investigated. Using a sensitive immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA), we found an approximately five-fold increase in plasma NGF levels during labour and lactation compared with the concentrations found at the term of(More)
In order to determine the localization of the glycinergic neurones responsible for the hyperpolarization of the rat trigeminal motoneurones during paradoxical sleep, we developed a new double immunohistochemical method combining the b subunit of the cholera toxin (CTb), a very sensitive retrograde tracer, with glycine immunohistochemistry. After(More)
Oxytocin, intraperitoneally injected to 26-month-old male rats 60 min before testing, significantly improved social memory (at doses of 3 and 6 ng/kg) and reduced the duration of immobility in the behavioral despair test (at doses of 50 and 500 micrograms/kg). These results are in agreement with previous data obtained in adult rats and indicate that aging(More)