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This paper reports the design, construction, and testing of a replica of the human arm, which aims to be dynamically as well as kinematically accurate. The arm model is actuated with McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles, and controlled by a special purpose digital signal processing system designed to simulate spinal neural networks in real time. An(More)
Drawing from the rich source of proven and often novel mechanisms in the biological realm, biomimetic sensors are being successfully developed for many different transduction tasks. This paper presents such a sensor for transducing displacements. Our sensor is a robotic analog of the biological muscle spindle, an actuated position sensor which transduces(More)
Hard disk drives have evolved rapidly with computer miniaturization into highly compact and integrated electromechanical systems. Hard drives contain many precision mechanical parts which may prove useful in the design of small precision robots. The advantages of parts taken from hard disks include low cost, miniaturization, high quality, and for some(More)
A previously developed 3 axis mini direct drive robot has been enhanced with two additional direct drive axes for general positioning and orientation of an axially symmetric tool. The arm has a work volume of about 50 cc and will have 5-10 micron or better resolution and repeatability. The arm forms an initial prototype for the NASA/Univer-sity of(More)
This paper studies the ways that the performance of direct drive serial robots changes as system size is changed. We are particularly interested in the physical laws for scaling down direct drive arms to small sizes. Using theoretical scaling analysis, we show that there is a net physical performance advantage to small direct drive arms. A key factor for(More)
A previously developed 3-axis mini direct drive robot has been enhanced with two additional direct drive axes for general positioning and orientation of an axially symmetric tool. The arm has a work volume of about 120 and 5-10 or better resolution and repeat-ability. The arm forms an initial prototype for the NASA/University of Washington MicroTrex flight(More)
The host interface to each processor card supports 8 Mbaud serial communications for downloading software and other system functions. The host can select which processor it connects with by writing to an 8-bit card-select register in the NB-bus master. Once every millisecond, the NBbus master writes this processor card address out to the NBbus. The(More)
The authors have dosed gamma glutamyl transpeptidase in 42 patients with primary bronchopulmonary cancer, of whom 14 had liver metastases. In these 14 patients the level of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase was always high, except in 1 case; while in the remaining lot, a moderate and mostly belated increase was noticed in only 32 percent of cases. The dosing of(More)