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Paramutation is a heritable epigenetic modification induced in plants by cross-talk between allelic loci. Here we report a similar modification of the mouse Kit gene in the progeny of heterozygotes with the null mutant Kit(tm1Alf) (a lacZ insertion). In spite of a homozygous wild-type genotype, their offspring maintain, to a variable extent, the white spots(More)
Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for severe food-borne infections, but the mechanisms by which bacteria cross the intestinal barrier are unknown. Listeria monocytogenes expresses a surface protein, internalin, that interacts with a host receptor, E-cadherin, to promote entry into human epithelial cells. Murine E-cadherin, in contrast to guinea pig(More)
Bacterial type III secretion systems serve to translocate proteins into eukaryotic cells, requiring a secreton and a translocator for proteins to pass the bacterial and host membranes. We used the contact hemolytic activity of Shigella flexneri to investigate its putative translocator. Hemolysis was caused by formation of a 25-A pore within the red blood(More)
We report the first identification of a cellular receptor mediating entry of a gram-positive bacterium into nonphagocytotic cells. By an affinity chromatography approach, we identified E-cadherin as the ligand for internalin, an L. monocytogenes protein essential for entry into epithelial cells. Expression of the chicken homolog of E-cadherin (L-CAM) in(More)
Protein coats deform flat lipid membranes into buds and capture membrane proteins to form transport vesicles. The assembly/disassembly cycle of the COPI coat on Golgi membranes is coupled to the GTP/GDP cycle of the small G protein Arf1. At the heart of this coupling is the specific interaction of membrane-bound Arf1-GTP with coatomer, a complex of seven(More)
Mice that are homozygous with respect to the progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mutation (chromosome 13) develop a progressive caudio-cranial degeneration of their motor axons from the age of two weeks and die four to six weeks after birth. The mutation is fully penetrant, and expressivity does not depend on the genetic background. Based on its(More)
Golgins, long stringlike proteins, tether cisternae and transport vesicles at the Golgi apparatus. We examined the attachment of golgin GMAP-210 to lipid membranes. GMAP-210 connected highly curved liposomes to flatter ones. This asymmetric tethering relied on motifs that sensed membrane curvature both in the N terminus of GMAP-210 and in ArfGAP1, which(More)
The resistance of hypoxic cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a major problem in the treatment of cancer. Recently, an additional mode of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcriptional regulation, involving modulation of a specific set of micro RNAs (miRNAs), including miR-210, has emerged. We have recently shown that HIF-1 induction of(More)
The infection of plants by obligate parasitic nematodes constitutes an interesting model for investigating plant cytoskeleton functions. Root knot nematodes have evolved the ability to manipulate host functions to their own advantage by redifferentiating root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied feeding cells. These giant cells result from repeated(More)
With the recent success of the heterologous expression of mycobacterial antigens in corynebacteria, in addition to the importance of these bacteria in biotechnology and medicine, a better understanding of the structure of their cell envelopes was needed. A combination of molecular compositional analysis, ultrastructural appearance and freeze-etch electron(More)