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BACKGROUND The source and route of autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not clearly established in industrialized countries despite evidence that it is a zoonosis in pigs. We investigated the role of figatellu, a traditional pig liver sausage widely eaten in France and commonly consumed raw, as a source of HEV infection. METHODS A(More)
Here, we analyze the complete coding sequences of all recognized tick-borne flavivirus species, including Gadgets Gully, Royal Farm and Karshi virus, seabird-associated flaviviruses, Kadam virus and previously uncharacterized isolates of Kyasanur Forest disease virus and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. Significant taxonomic improvements are proposed, e.g. the(More)
TTV and TTMV (recently assigned to the floating genus Anellovirus) infect human populations (including healthy individuals) at high prevalence (>80%). They display notably high levels of genetic diversity, but very little is known regarding the distribution of Anellovirus genetic groups in human populations. We analyzed the distribution of the major genetic(More)
Systematic molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Spain. To the Editor: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute and fulminant hepatitis in developing countries (1). In industrialized countries , HEV seroprevalence rates of 0.4%–3% are common, and evidence is mounting that autochthonous(More)
The phylogenetic relationship between the complete genomic sequences of ten Japanese and one French isolate of TT virus-like mini virus (TLMV) was investigated. Analysis of the variability of the nucleotide sequences and the detection of signature patterns for overlapping genes suggested that ORFs 1 and 2 are probably functional. However, this was not the(More)
BACKGROUND the heterogeneity of the TT virus (TTV) DNA prevalence values reported from comparable human cohorts suggests that diagnostic PCR protocols still require to be optimized. OBJECTIVES to design TTV PCR primer sets with low genotype restriction and to compare their performances with commonly used amplification systems. STUDY DESIGN we compared(More)
Epidemiological studies in the developing world are frequently biased by the simultaneous presence of several infectious pathogens. In the present study, we examined the usefulness of circulating markers of oxidative stress and liver fibrosis to investigate the distinct forms of chronic liver inflammations associated with schistosomiasis and viral(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence, viremia, genotype distribution, and demographic history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Republic of the Congo. Testing was carried out on sera samples collected in 2005 from 807 Bantus belonging to the Kongo, Teke, and Ngala subgroups and 80 Pygmies. Positive HCV serology was found in 50 (5.6%)(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of malaria transmission by blood transfusion is critical due to extensive travel from endemic areas to non-endemic areas. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) malaria antibody test has been developed that is claimed to perform better than the immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT). The assay contains antigens to both Plasmodium(More)