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In the present study, we investigated changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in humans during the progression from relaxed wakefulness through slow wave sleep (SWS). These changes were examined as a function of spindle (12-15 Hz) and delta (1.5-4.0 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of SWS. rCBF was studied with positron emission tomography(More)
In the present study, we used positron emission tomography to investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a general anesthetic infusion set to produce a gradual transition from the awake state to unconsciousness. Five right-handed human volunteers participated in the study. They were given propofol with a computer-controlled infusion(More)
We investigated the effects of the general anesthetic agent propofol on cerebral structures involved in the processing of vibrotactile information. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and the H(2)(15)O bolus technique, we measured regional distribution of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in eight healthy human volunteers. They were scanned under five(More)
BACKGROUND The extent to which complex auditory stimuli are processed and differentiated during general anesthesia is unknown. The authors used blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the processing words (10 per period; compared with scrambled words) and nonspeech human vocal sounds (10 per period; compared with(More)
BACKGROUND The 40-Hz auditory steady state response (40-Hz ASSR) provides a reliable marker of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. Brain electric source analysis indicates that the 40-Hz ASSR arises from cortical and subcortical generators. The authors used source analysis to assess the effect of propofol anesthesia on the cerebral generators of the 40-Hz(More)
BACKGROUND Anatomic and physiologic data show that multiple regions of the forebrain are activated by pain. However, the effect of anesthetic level on nociceptive input to these regions is not well understood. METHODS The authors used positron emission tomography to measure the effect of various concentrations of propofol on pain-evoked changes in(More)
BACKGROUND It is postulated that alteration of central cholinergic transmission plays an important role in the mechanism by which anesthetics produce unconsciousness. The authors investigated the effect of altering central cholinergic transmission, by physostigmine and scopolamine, on unconsciousness produced by propofol. METHODS Propofol was administered(More)
BACKGROUND Functional brain imaging offers a way to investigate how general anaesthetics impair consciousness. However, functional imaging changes may result from drug effects unrelated to hypnosis. Establishing a causal link with loss of consciousness is thus difficult. METHODS To identify changes of neuronal activity functionally linked to the level of(More)
BACKGROUND Physostigmine, a centrally acting anticholinesterase, antagonizes the hypnotic effect of propofol, as shown by the return of consciousness (response to commands) or wakefulness (spontaneous eye-opening without response to commands) and by recovery of auditory evoked potentials (40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR)) and the bispectral index(More)