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Multiple sclerosis (MS) has its usual onset in early adult life (average age of 30 years), but age at clinical onset varies considerably. The implications of the age of onset on the clinical presentation and course of MS are unclear. This population-based retrospective study presents data from a group of 125 patients with onset of MS before age 16 years and(More)
The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is uncertain. There is strong circumstantial evidence to indicate it is an autoimmune complex trait. Risks for first degree relatives are increased some 20 fold over the general population. Twin studies have shown monozygotic concordance rates of 25-30% compared to 4% for dizygotic twins and siblings. Studies of(More)
OBJECTIVE There is substantial evidence supporting the role of interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing T helper (T(H)) 1 and interleukin (IL)-17-expressing T(H)17 lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, to date little is known about the potential cooperative interplay between these 2(More)
Results from studies of twin concordance in multiple sclerosis have not conclusively differentiated between environmental and genetic factors that determine susceptibility to the disease. Published studies that have been based on case finding by public appeal have been characterized by difficulties in ascertainment. The data reported here are from a large(More)
A patient was followed after the new onset of hemiparesis from relapse of MS with serial MR spectroscopy and functional MRI. The association of clinical improvement with recovery of N-acetylaspartate, a marker of neuronal integrity, and progressive reduction of abnormally large functional MRI cortical activation with movement demonstrates that dynamic(More)
Previous reports by our group and by others have shown that in vitro treatment of T cells derived from healthy, normal subjects with interferon beta-1b (IFN-beta1b) reduces metalloproteinase (metalloproteinase type 9 [MMP-9]) activity with a consequent reduction in lymphocyte migration. In this study, we used a Boyden chamber assay to assess the migratory(More)
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that CD8 T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the sources and involvement of cytokines such as IL-15 in activating these cells is still unresolved. To investigate the role of IL-15 in enhancing the activation of CD8 T cells in the context of MS, we determined cell types expressing the(More)
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is characterized by increased concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig), which on electrophoretic analysis shows restricted heterogeneity (oligoclonal bands). CSF Ig is composed of both serum and intrathecally produced components. To examine the properties of intrathecal antibody-producing B(More)
We report a trial of minocycline in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that evaluates safety and estimates its effect on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten subjects with active RRMS received oral mi-nocycline 100mg twice daily for 6 months after a 3-month run-in period. A 30-month treatment extension is ongoing. Clinical and(More)
BACKGROUND Once weekly interferon beta-1a for multiple sclerosis (OWIMS) demonstrated modest, but significant, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) benefit of once-weekly (qw) interferon (IFN) beta-1a at 48 weeks, but no significant effect on relapses. OBJECTIVE An OWIMS extension permitted assessment of longer-term efficacy/safety of qw IFN beta-1a in(More)