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Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the "phyllocian" era) are(More)
The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) investigation, on board the European Space Agency Mars Express mission, is mapping the surface composition of Mars at a 0.3- to 5-kilometer resolution by means of visible-near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imagery. The data acquired during the first 9 months of the mission(More)
The recent identification of large deposits of sulphates by remote sensing and in situ observations has been considered evidence of the past presence of liquid water on Mars. Here we report the unambiguous detection of diverse phyllosilicates, a family of aqueous alteration products, on the basis of observations by the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board(More)
The questions of whether Venus is geologically active and how the planet has resurfaced over the past billion years have major implications for interior dynamics and climate change. Nine "hotspots"--areas analogous to Hawaii, with volcanism, broad topographic rises, and large positive gravity anomalies suggesting mantle plumes at depth--have been identified(More)
We present our current understanding of the composition, vertical mixing, cloud structure and the origin of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Available observations point to a much more vigorous vertical mixing in Saturn's middle-upper atmosphere than in Jupiter's. The nearly cloud-free nature of the Galileo probe entry site, a 5-micron hotspot, is(More)
Models of Jupiter's formation and structure predict that its atmosphere is enriched in oxygen, relative to the Sun, and that consequently water clouds should be present globally near the 5-bar pressure level. Past attempts to confirm these predictions have led to contradictory results; in particular, the Galileo probe revealed a very dry atmosphere at the(More)
Titan's haze is optically thick in the visible, with an optical depth at 0:5 m of about three. The haze varies with latitude in a seasonal cycle and has a detached upper layer. Microphysical models, photochemical models, and laboratory simulations all imply that the production rate of the haze is in the range of 0:5–2 × 10 −14 g cm −2 s −1. Given the rate(More)
We have analysed the ISO-SWS spectrum of Jupiter in the 12–16 µm range, where several hydrocarbons exhibit rovibrational bands. Using temperature information from the methane and hydrogen emissions, we derive the mixing ratios (q) of acetylene and ethane at two independent pressure levels. For acetylene, we find q = (8.9 +1.1 −0.6) × 10 −7 at 0.3 mbar and q(More)
Observations from the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer show an anomalously bright spot on Titan located at 80 degrees W and 20 degrees S. This area is bright in reflected light at all observed wavelengths, but is most noticeable at 5 microns. The spot is associated with a surface albedo feature identified in images taken by the Cassini(More)