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Establishment of a human model of the blood-brain barrier has proven to be a difficult goal. To accomplish this, normal human brain endothelial cells were transduced by lentiviral vectors incorporating human telomerase or SV40 T antigen. Among the many stable immortalized clones obtained by sequential limiting dilution cloning of the transduced cells, one(More)
Neurogenesis persists within a few restricted areas of the adult mammalian brain, giving rise to neurons that functionally integrate into preexisting circuits. One of these areas, the subventricular zone (SVZ), was believed, until recently, to be the unique source providing the adult olfactory bulb (OB) with newborn neurons. Because of the fact that(More)
We recently reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) unintegrated linear DNA displays a discontinuity in its plus strand, precisely defined by a second copy of the polypurine tract (PPT) located near the middle of the genome (P. Charneau and F. Clavel, J. Virol. 65:2415-2421, 1991). This central PPT appears to determine a second initiation(More)
The first-order sensory relay for olfactory processing, the main olfactory bulb (MOB), retains the ability to acquire new interneurons throughout life. It is therefore a particularly appropriate region for studying the role of experience in sculpting neuronal networks. We found that nostril closure decreased the number of newborn granule cells in the MOB,(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) causes the major arboviral disease of the tropics, characterized in its severe forms by signs of hemorrhage and plasma leakage. DENV encodes a nonstructural glycoprotein, NS1, that associates with intracellular membranes and the cell surface. NS1 is eventually secreted as a soluble hexamer from DENV-infected cells and circulates in the(More)
During HIV-1 reverse transcription, the plus-strand of viral DNA is synthesized as two discrete segments. We show here that synthesis of the upstream segment terminates at the center of the genome after an 88 or 98 nucleotide strand displacement of the downstream segment, initiated at the central polypurine tract. Thus, the final structure of unintegrated(More)
The HIV-1 central DNA Flap acts as a cis-acting determinant of HIV-1 genome nuclear import. Indeed, DNA-Flap re-insertion within lentiviral-derived gene transfer vectors strongly stimulates gene transfer efficiencies. In this study, we sought to understand the mechanisms by which the central DNA Flap mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. Here, we show that reverse(More)
Disruption of the vif gene of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 affects virus infectivity to various degrees, depending on the T-cell line used. We have concentrated our studies on true phenotypic Vif- mutant particles produced from CEMx174 or H9 cells. In a single round of infection, Vif- virus is approximately 25 (from CEMx174 cells) to 100 (from(More)
Cell lines have many advantages: they can be manipulated genetically, expanded, and stockpiled for organ transplantation. Freshly isolated hepatocytes, oval cells, pancreatic cells, and hematopoietic stem cells have been shown to repopulate the damaged liver. Here we show that bipotential mouse embryonic liver (BMEL) stem cell lines participate in liver(More)
By frequently rearranging large regions of the genome, genetic recombination is a major determinant in the plasticity of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) population. In retroviruses, recombination mostly occurs by template switching during reverse transcription. The generation of retroviral vectors provides a means to study this process after(More)