Pierre Charneau

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Establishment of a human model of the blood-brain barrier has proven to be a difficult goal. To accomplish this, normal human brain endothelial cells were transduced by lentiviral vectors incorporating human telomerase or SV40 T antigen. Among the many stable immortalized clones obtained by sequential limiting dilution cloning of the transduced cells, one(More)
HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unique property among retroviruses to replicate in nondividing cells. This property relies on the use of a nuclear import pathway enabling the viral DNA to cross the nuclear membrane of the host cell. In HIV-1 reverse transcription, a central strand displacement event consecutive to central initiation and termination of(More)
The HIV-1 central DNA Flap acts as a cis-acting determinant of HIV-1 genome nuclear import. Indeed, DNA-Flap re-insertion within lentiviral-derived gene transfer vectors strongly stimulates gene transfer efficiencies. In this study, we sought to understand the mechanisms by which the central DNA Flap mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. Here, we show that reverse(More)
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of macromolecules and is an obligatory point of passage and functional bottleneck in the replication of some viruses. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has evolved the required mechanisms for active nuclear import of its genome through the NPC. However the mechanisms by which the NPC(More)
We recently reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) unintegrated linear DNA displays a discontinuity in its plus strand, precisely defined by a second copy of the polypurine tract (PPT) located near the middle of the genome (P. Charneau and F. Clavel, J. Virol. 65:2415-2421, 1991). This central PPT appears to determine a second initiation(More)
The first-order sensory relay for olfactory processing, the main olfactory bulb (MOB), retains the ability to acquire new interneurons throughout life. It is therefore a particularly appropriate region for studying the role of experience in sculpting neuronal networks. We found that nostril closure decreased the number of newborn granule cells in the MOB,(More)
During HIV-1 reverse transcription, the plus-strand of viral DNA is synthesized as two discrete segments. We show here that synthesis of the upstream segment terminates at the center of the genome after an 88 or 98 nucleotide strand displacement of the downstream segment, initiated at the central polypurine tract. Thus, the final structure of unintegrated(More)
Neurogenesis persists within a few restricted areas of the adult mammalian brain, giving rise to neurons that functionally integrate into preexisting circuits. One of these areas, the subventricular zone (SVZ), was believed, until recently, to be the unique source providing the adult olfactory bulb (OB) with newborn neurons. Because of the fact that(More)
The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus I is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy. The viral oncoprotein Tax, through the activation of nuclear factorkappaB (NF-kappaB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (CREB), and activated protein-1 (AP-1) pathways, is a transcriptional regulator of critical genes for T-cell homeostasis.(More)