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Neurogenesis persists within a few restricted areas of the adult mammalian brain, giving rise to neurons that functionally integrate into preexisting circuits. One of these areas, the subventricular zone (SVZ), was believed, until recently, to be the unique source providing the adult olfactory bulb (OB) with newborn neurons. Because of the fact that(More)
The first-order sensory relay for olfactory processing, the main olfactory bulb (MOB), retains the ability to acquire new interneurons throughout life. It is therefore a particularly appropriate region for studying the role of experience in sculpting neuronal networks. We found that nostril closure decreased the number of newborn granule cells in the MOB,(More)
HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unique property among retroviruses to replicate in nondividing cells. This property relies on the use of a nuclear import pathway enabling the viral DNA to cross the nuclear membrane of the host cell. In HIV-1 reverse transcription, a central strand displacement event consecutive to central initiation and termination of(More)
Emerging real-time techniques for imaging viral infections provide powerful tools for understanding the dynamics of virus-host cell interactions. Here we labeled human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase with a small tetracysteine tag, which preserved the virus' infectivity while allowing it to be labeled with the bis-arsenical fluorescein derivative(More)
Ex vivo gene therapy is emerging as a promising approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and central nervous system (CNS) trauma. We have shown previously that human adult astrocytes can be expanded in vitro and can express various therapeutic transgenes (Ridet et al. [1999] Hum. Gene Ther. 10:271-280; Serguera et al. [ 2001] Mol. Ther.(More)
V(D)J recombination and immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) are two somatic rearrangement mechanisms that proceed through the introduction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA. Although the DNA repair factor XRCC4 is essential for the resolution of DNA DSB during V(D)J recombination, its role in CSR has not been established. To bypass the(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus I is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive T-cell malignancy. The viral oncoprotein Tax, through the activation of nuclear factorkappaB (NF-kappaB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (CREB), and activated protein-1 (AP-1) pathways, is a transcriptional regulator of critical genes for T-cell homeostasis.(More)
The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of(More)
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of macromolecules and is an obligatory point of passage and functional bottleneck in the replication of some viruses. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has evolved the required mechanisms for active nuclear import of its genome through the NPC. However the mechanisms by which the NPC(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated liver cirrhosis represent a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. TGF-beta is an important driver of liver fibrogenesis and cancer; however, its actual impact in human cancer progression is still poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of(More)