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BACKGROUND Epidemiologic data suggest that infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with increased genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and HIV-1 transmissibility. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy with valacyclovir (at a dose of 500(More)
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly virulent human pathogen. Recovery of infected patients is associated with efficient EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses, whereas fatal outcome is associated with defective humoral immunity. As B-cell epitopes on EBOV are poorly defined, we sought to identify specific epitopes in four EBOV proteins (Glycoprotein(More)
BACKGROUND Ebolavirus species Zaire (ZEBOV) causes highly lethal hemorrhagic fever, resulting in the death of 90% of patients within days. Most information on immune responses to ZEBOV comes from in vitro studies and animal models. The paucity of data on human immune responses to this virus is mainly due to the fact that most outbreaks occur in remote(More)
To better understand Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) circulation and transmission to humans, we conducted a large serological survey of rural populations in Gabon, a country characterized by both epidemic and non epidemic regions. The survey lasted three years and covered 4,349 individuals from 220 randomly selected villages, representing 10.7% of all villages in(More)
BACKGROUND Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused multiple outbreaks in tropical and temperate areas worldwide, but the clinical and biological features of this disease are poorly described, particularly in Africa. We report a prospective study of clinical and biological features during an outbreak that occurred in Franceville, Gabon in 2010. (More)
Antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of the IgA, IgG, and IgM isotypes and high levels of the HIV suppressive beta-chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normally T cell expressed and secreted) were found in the cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) of 7.5% of 342 multiply and repeatedly exposed African HIV-seronegative female sex workers. The(More)
BACKGROUND Rapidly spreading to new regions, including the islands of the Indian Ocean, Central Africa, and Europe, Chikungunya fever is becoming a major problem of public health. Unlike other members of the alphavirus genus, immune responses to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been poorly investigated. METHODS We conducted a large ex vivo multiplex study(More)
BACKGROUND Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) were recently introduced in central Africa, along with Aedes albopictus. Simultaneous outbreaks of CHIKV and DENV-2 have subsequently occurred, in Cameroon in 2006 and Gabon in 2007. METHODS To study the spread of the 2 viruses, we conducted active surveillance of acute febrile(More)
BACKGROUND In Gabon, several Ebolavirus outbreaks have occurred exclusively in the northeastern region. We conducted a large serosurvey to identify areas and populations at risk and potential demographic, clinical, and behavioral risk factors. METHODS Blood samples and clinical and sociodemographic data were collected from 4349 adults and 362 children in(More)
An outbreak of febrile illness occurred in Gabon in 2007, with 20,000 suspected cases. Chikungunya or dengue-2 virus infections were identified in 321 patients; 8 patients had documented co-infections. Aedes albopictus was identified as the principal vector for the transmission of both viruses.