Piero Vavassori

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The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-regulated nuclear receptor expressed in enterohepatic tissues. In this study we investigated whether FXR is expressed by cells of innate immunity and regulates inflammation in animal models of colitis. Acute (7 days) and chronic (8 wk) colitis were induced in wild-type and FXR(-/-) mice by intrarectal(More)
Background: In coeliac disease (CD) mucosa, the histological lesion is associated with marked infiltration of T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cells. However, the molecular mechanisms which regulate Th1 cell differentiation in CD mucosa are unknown. Aims: To analyse expression of transcription factors which control the Th1 cell commitment in CD. Patients:(More)
Immunologically mediated tissue damage in the gut is associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which activate the transcription factor NF-kappaB in a variety of different cell types. The mechanisms/factors that negatively regulate NF-kappaB in the human gut and the pathways leading to the sustained NF-kappaB activation in gut(More)
BACKGROUND CARD15 gene mutations have been demonstrated to confer a high risk of Crohn's disease (CD). Despite this, recent studies reported variable associations between CD and CARD15 mutations in distinct ethnic groups, thus raising the hypothesis that genetic and/or allelic heterogeneity may influence the relationship between CARD15 and CD. The purpose(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS T-helper (Th)1 cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in Crohn's disease (CD). Interleukin (IL)-12/STAT4 signaling promotes Th1 cell commitment in CD, but other cytokines are needed to maintain activated Th1 cells in the mucosa. In this study, we examined the expression and role of IL-21, a T-cell-derived cytokine(More)
Farnesoid X Receptor plays an important role in maintaining bile acid, cholesterol homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we investigated whether FXR is expressed by pancreatic beta-cells and regulates insulin signaling in pancreatic beta-cell line and human islets. We found that FXR activation induces positive regulatory effects on glucose-induced(More)
In normal conditions, human gut mucosa is infiltrated with a large number of mononuclear cells. This is a reflection of the fact that human intestine is continuously subjected to a massive stimulation by luminal antigens. This state of "physiological" inflammation is a tightly controlled phenomenon, as several mucosal cells interact to generate and maintain(More)
Recent studies have suggested that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, the mechanism underlying the antineoplastic effect of 5-ASA remains unknown. We here examined the effect of 5-ASA on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, a pathway that triggers mitogenic signals in CRC cells. We show that(More)
BACKGROUND The majority of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease do not present with erosive oesophagitis and make up a heterogeneous group. Patients with non-erosive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are less responsive than patients with oesophagitis to acid-suppressive therapy. AIM To assess the role of acid reflux in gastro-oesophageal(More)