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During ischemic brain injury, glutamate accumulation leads to overstimulation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors with intracellular Ca2+ overload and neuronal cell death. Here we show that glutamate can induce either early necrosis or delayed apoptosis in cultures of cerebellar granule cells. During and shortly after exposure to glutamate, a subpopulation(More)
Apoptosis and necrosis are considered conceptually and morphologically distinct forms of cell death. Here, we report that demise of human T cells caused by two classic apoptotic triggers (staurosporin and CD95 stimulation) changed from apoptosis to necrosis, when cells were preemptied of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nuclear condensation and DNA(More)
The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) occurs at high concentrations in fast-contracting vertebrate muscle fibers. Its putative role in facilitating the rapid relaxation of mammalian fast-twitch muscle fibers by acting as a temporary buffer for Ca2+ is still controversial. We generated knockout mice for PV (PV -/-) and compared the Ca2+ transients and(More)
In brain ischemia, gating of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and other membrane channels triggers intracellular Ca2+ overload and cell death. In excitotoxic settings, the initial Ca2+ influx through glutamate receptors is followed by a second uncontrolled Ca2+ increase that leads to neuronal demise. Here we report that the major plasma membrane Ca2+(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder presenting with chorea, dementia, and extensive striatal neuronal death. The mechanism through which the widely expressed mutant HD gene mediates a slowly progressing striatal neurotoxicity is unknown. Glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity has been hypothesized to contribute to the(More)
BACKGROUND Excitotoxicity and excess generation of nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be fundamental mechanisms in many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis and protein nitration/nitrosylation are key features in such conditions. Recently, a family of proteases collectively known as caspases has been implicated as(More)
Ca(2+) transients were investigated in single fibers isolated from rat extensor digitorum longus muscles exposed to chronic low-frequency stimulation for different time periods up to 10 days. Approximately 2.5-fold increases in resting Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) were observed 2 h after stimulation onset and persisted throughout the stimulation period.(More)
BACKGROUND Early loss of neurites followed by delayed damage of neuronal somata is a feature of several neurodegenerative diseases. Death by apoptosis would ensure the rapid removal of injured neurons, whereas conditions that prevent apoptosis may facilitate the persistence of damaged cells and favor inflammation and disease progression. MATERIALS AND(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins are bacterial endopeptidases that cleave the major SNARE proteins in peripheral motorneurons. Here, we show that disruption of synaptic architecture by botulinum neurotoxin C1 (BoNT/C) in central nervous system neurons activates distinct neurodegenerative programs in the axo-dendritic network and in the cell bodies. Neurites(More)