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During ischemic brain injury, glutamate accumulation leads to overstimulation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors with intracellular Ca2+ overload and neuronal cell death. Here we show that glutamate can induce either early necrosis or delayed apoptosis in cultures of cerebellar granule cells. During and shortly after exposure to glutamate, a subpopulation(More)
Apoptosis and necrosis are considered conceptually and morphologically distinct forms of cell death. Here, we report that demise of human T cells caused by two classic apoptotic triggers (staurosporin and CD95 stimulation) changed from apoptosis to necrosis, when cells were preemptied of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nuclear condensation and DNA(More)
To live or to die? This crucial question eloquently reflects the dual role of Ca2+ in living organisms--survival factor or ruthless killer. It has long been known that Ca2+ signals govern a host of vital cell functions and so are necessary for cell survival. However, more recently it has become clear that cellular Ca2+ overload, or perturbation of(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated neurotoxicity may depend, in part, on the generation of nitric oxide (NO.) and superoxide anion (O2.-), which react to form peroxynitrite (OONO-). This form of neurotoxicity is thought to contribute to a final common pathway of injury in a wide variety of acute and chronic neurologic disorders, including focal(More)
The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) occurs at high concentrations in fast-contracting vertebrate muscle fibers. Its putative role in facilitating the rapid relaxation of mammalian fast-twitch muscle fibers by acting as a temporary buffer for Ca2+ is still controversial. We generated knockout mice for PV (PV -/-) and compared the Ca2+ transients and(More)
In brain ischemia, gating of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and other membrane channels triggers intracellular Ca2+ overload and cell death. In excitotoxic settings, the initial Ca2+ influx through glutamate receptors is followed by a second uncontrolled Ca2+ increase that leads to neuronal demise. Here we report that the major plasma membrane Ca2+(More)
BACKGROUND Excitotoxicity and excess generation of nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be fundamental mechanisms in many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis and protein nitration/nitrosylation are key features in such conditions. Recently, a family of proteases collectively known as caspases has been implicated as(More)
Necrotic cell death was long regarded as the ultimate consequence of chemical toxicity and was thought to result from simple cell failure because of toxic interference with vital cell functions. Introduction of the novel concept of programmed cell death (PCD), or apoptosis, has changed this view dramatically. This development has been further stimulated by(More)
Cell death is essential for a plethora of physiological processes, and its deregulation characterizes numerous human diseases. Thus, the in-depth investigation of cell death and its mechanisms constitutes a formidable challenge for fundamental and applied biomedical research, and has tremendous implications for the development of novel therapeutic(More)
Neuronal death, which follows ischemic injury or is triggered by excitotoxins, can occur by both apoptosis and necrosis. Caspases, which are not directly required for necrotic cell death, are central mediators of the apoptotic program. Here we demonstrate that caspases cleave and inactivate the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump (PMCA) in neurons and non-neuronal(More)