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The parallelism between serum levels of heroin and morphine (M) metabolites and the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) from murine splenocyte cultures following s.c. injection with 20(More)
This study investigated the association between biomarkers of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy, cotinine in cord serum and in maternal and newborn urine samples, and quantitative measurement of smoking intake and exposure evaluated by maternal self-reported questionnaire. Study subjects were 429 mothers and their newborns from a(More)
Cell-mediated immune response after the administration of MDMA alone and in combination with alcohol was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over pilot clinical trial conducted in four healthy MDMA consumers who received single oral doses of 75 mg MDMA (n = 2) or 100 mg MDMA (n = 2), alcohol (0.8 mg/kg), MDMA and alcohol, or(More)
The study examines the role of several potential predictors of urinary cotinine levels in a cross-sectional sample of 1,072 nonsmoking children and adolescents in Latium, Italy, during 1990-1991. As expected, there was a strong relation between passive exposure to smoking and the amount of maternal and paternal self-reported smoking. The urinary cotinine(More)
To describe serum cotinine levels in a rural Italian population and to examine its usefulness as an epidemiologic biomarker of nicotine exposure, cross-sectional data collected in 1993 for the MATISS Project (2098 men and 1352 women, aged 20-79 years) were used. The study population consisted of 977 current smokers, 882 nonsmokers reporting exposure to(More)
OBJECTIVE Overweight has been increasing in several developed countries over the last few decades. No update information on the issue is available for Italy. DESIGN AND SETTING We conducted a computer assisted personal in-house interview survey in March-April 2004, on a sample of 2932 Italian individuals (1407 men and 1525 women) aged 18 years or over,(More)
Acute administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") produces time-dependent immune dysfunction in humans. Recreational use of MDMA generally includes repeated drug consumption, often in association with other drugs, such as alcohol and cannabis. In the laboratory setting, repeated MDMA administration to healthy MDMA consumers(More)
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) use can cause neurochemical, behavioral and endocrine alterations, similar to those produced by exposure to acute stress, suggesting its potential as a "chemical stressor." It is known that stressful stimuli can produce a depression of immune function and an alteration in immune cells distribution. In vitro exposure(More)
A rapid and selective assay of morphine and its 3- and 6-glucuronides in serum, based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry has been developed. The analytes and the internal standard, codeine or naltrexone, were subjected to solid-phase extraction, using ethyl solid-phase extraction columns, prior to chromatography. A(More)
The relationship between nicotine intake and steady-state cotinine concentration was studied in a sample of 125 subjects who smoked their usual brands of cigarettes. Nicotine and tar yield of cigarettes was determined with a smoking machine, under standardized conditions. Blood was drawn about 8 hours after the last cigarette was smoked and serum cotinine(More)