Piedad Alvarez

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OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct medical costs associated with managing complications, hypoglycemia episodes, and infections associated with type 2 diabetes expressed in 2012 United States dollars (USD). METHODS Direct data analysis and microcosting were used to estimate the costs for an event leading to either a hospital admission or outpatient care, and(More)
(ABSTRACT) The JBits Application Programming Interface has significantly shortened FPGA reconfiguration times by manipulating the configurable resources of the FPGAs directly under software control. The execution of JBits programs, however, requires a Java Virtual Machine to be implemented on the platform where the configurations will be modified. This(More)
BACKGROUND Hospitalization costs in clinical trials are typically derived by multiplying the length of stay (LOS) by an average per-diem (PD) cost from external sources. This assumes that PD costs are independent of LOS. Resource utilization in early days of the stay is usually more intense, however, and thus, the PD cost for a short hospitalization may be(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillators are effective in primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with high risk profiles. OBJECTIVES To conduct a cost-benefit assessment of prevention of sudden cardiac death with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) vs. amiodarone from the Canadian(More)
BACKGROUND Perioperative hypertension affects 80% of cardiac surgery patients and is associated with an increased risk of complications. OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between perioperative blood pressure (BP) control and hospital costs for cardiac surgery in the United States (US) and estimate the potential cost reductions associated with(More)
OBJECTIVE Improved health outcomes can result in economic savings for hospitals and payers. While effectiveness of topical hemostatic agents in cardiac surgery has been demonstrated, evaluations of their economic benefit are limited. This study quantifies the cost consequences to hospitals, based on clinical outcomes, from using a flowable hemostatic matrix(More)
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