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BACKGROUND Knowledge of the age-specific prevalence of immunity from, and incidence of infection with, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus is essential for modelling the future burden of disease and the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. METHODS In this cross-sectional serological survey, we obtained 1403 serum samples taken in 2008(More)
Following the global spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, several pandemic vaccines have been rapidly developed. The United Kingdom and many other countries in the northern hemisphere implemented seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine programmes in October 2009. We present the results of a case–control study to estimate effectiveness of such vaccines(More)
Estimating the age-specific incidence of an emerging pathogen is essential for understanding its severity and transmission dynamics. This paper describes a statistical method that uses likelihoods to estimate incidence from sequential serological data. The method requires information on seroconversion intervals and allows integration of information on the(More)
This study provides mid-season estimates of the effectiveness of 2010/11 trivalent influenza vaccine and previous vaccination with monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in the United Kingdom in the 2010/11 season. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 34% (95% CI: -10 - 60%) if vaccinated only with(More)
  • E Mclean, R Pebody, B Paterson, B Smyth, C Kearns, J Mcmenamin +38 others
  • 2009
Following the emergence of the novel pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus in North America in April 2009, the first UK cases were reported on 27 April 2009. Several existing and new surveillance systems were used to investigate the first cases, to monitor the unfolding pandemic and to measure the impact and effectiveness of the various countermeasures that(More)
This paper describes the epidemiology of fatal pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since April 2009 and in particular risk factors associated with death. A fatal case was defined as a UK resident who died between 27 April 2009 and 12 March 2010, in whom pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection was laboratory-confirmed or recorded on the(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportion of children who die with chronic conditions and examine time trends in childhood deaths involving chronic conditions. DESIGN Retrospective population-based death cohort study using linked death certificates and hospital discharge records. SETTING England, Scotland and Wales. PARTICIPANTS All resident children who(More)
We conducted a seroepidemiologic study during an outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in a boarding school in England. Overall, 353 (17%) of students and staff completed a questionnaire and provided a serum sample. The attack rate was 40.5% and 34.1% for self-reported acute respiratory infection (ARI). Staff were less likely to be seropositive than students(More)
BACKGROUND Injuries are an increasingly important cause of death in children worldwide, yet injury mortality is highly preventable. Determining patterns and trends in child injury mortality can identify groups at particularly high risk. We compare trends in child deaths due to injury in four UK countries, between 1980 and 2010. METHODS We obtained(More)