Pia Hardelid

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BACKGROUND Knowledge of the age-specific prevalence of immunity from, and incidence of infection with, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus is essential for modelling the future burden of disease and the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. METHODS In this cross-sectional serological survey, we obtained 1403 serum samples taken in 2008(More)
OBJECTIVES The objectives of the H1N1 2009 serological surveillance project were twofold: to document (1) the prevalence of cross-reactive antibodies to H1N1 2009 by age group in the population of England prior to arrival of the pandemic strain virus in the UK and (2) the age-specific incidence of infection by month as the pandemic progressed by measuring(More)
Estimating the age-specific incidence of an emerging pathogen is essential for understanding its severity and transmission dynamics. This paper describes a statistical method that uses likelihoods to estimate incidence from sequential serological data. The method requires information on seroconversion intervals and allows integration of information on the(More)
This paper describes the epidemiology of fatal pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases in the United Kingdom (UK) since April 2009 and in particular risk factors associated with death. A fatal case was defined as a UK resident who died between 27 April 2009 and 12 March 2010, in whom pandemic influenza A(H1N1) infection was confirmed by laboratory or recorded on(More)
Following the global spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009, several pandemic vaccines have been rapidly developed. The United Kingdom and many other countries in the northern hemisphere implemented seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine programmes in October 2009. We present the results of a case–control study to estimate effectiveness of such vaccines(More)
BACKGROUND The mortality burden caused by influenza cannot be quantified directly from death certificates because of under-recording; therefore, the estimated number of influenza deaths has to be obtained through statistical modelling. OBJECTIVE To estimate the number of deaths caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in England and Wales(More)
We present the results from a novel surveillance system for detecting excess all-cause mortality by age group in England and Wales developed during the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 period from April 2009 to March 2010. A Poisson regression model was fitted to age-specific mortality data from 1999 to 2008 and used to predict the expected number of weekly(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism (OMIM 261600). Treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet following early ascertainment by newborn screening prevents impaired cognitive development, the major disease phenotype in PKU. The overall birth prevalence of PKU in European, Chinese and Korean populations is approximately(More)
This study provides mid-season estimates of the effectiveness of 2010/11 trivalent influenza vaccine and previous vaccination with monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection in the United Kingdom in the 2010/11 season. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 34% (95% CI: -10 - 60%) if vaccinated only with(More)
We assessed whether implementation of a combination of interventions in London tuberculosis clinics raised the levels of HIV test offers, acceptance and coverage. A stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted across 24 clinics. Interventions were training of clinical staff and provision of tailor-made information resources with or(More)