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Secondary bacterial pneumonia leads to increased morbidity and mortality from influenza virus infections. What causes this increased susceptibility, however, is not well defined. Host defense from infection relies not only on immune resistance mechanisms but also on the ability to tolerate a given level of pathogen burden. Failure of either resistance or(More)
Even though Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains one of the top microbial killers, more than 90% of the 2 billion infected individuals never develop active tuberculosis (TB), indicating efficient immune control of infection in these individuals. Immune mechanisms promoting either control or reactivation of TB are incompletely understood. Kinetic(More)
Tuberculosis causes 2 million deaths per year, yet in most cases the immune response successfully contains the infection and prevents disease outbreak. Induced lymphoid structures associated with pulmonary granuloma are observed during tuberculosis in both humans and mice and could orchestrate host defense. To investigate whether granuloma perform lymphoid(More)
Pathogen clearance and host resilience/tolerance to infection are both important factors in surviving an infection. Cells of the myeloid lineage play important roles in both of these processes. Neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells all have important roles in initiation of the immune response and clearance of bacterial pathogens. If these(More)
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