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Human cytidine deaminase apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like 3F (APOBEC3F, or A3F), like APOBEC3G, has broad antiviral activity against diverse retroelements, including Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Its antiviral functions are known to rely on its virion encapsidation and be suppressed by HIV-1 Vif, which recruits(More)
CD8+ class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) usually incompletely suppress HIV-1 in vivo, and while analogous partial suppression induces antiretroviral drug-resistance mutations, epitope escape mutations are inconsistently observed. However, escape mutation depends on the net balance of selective pressure and mutational fitness costs, which are(More)
The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) and other APOBEC3 proteins exhibit differential inhibitory activities against diverse endogenous retroelements and retroviruses, including Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The potential inhibitory activity of human APOBEC proteins against long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1) has not been fully(More)
Human cytidine deaminase apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins have been classified as either Z1- or Z2-type cytidine deaminases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of their catalytic domains. Despite the identification of a number of Z1-type domain-containing cytidine deaminases, only one copy of Z2-type cytidine(More)
Although CD8(+) CTLs are presumed to be an important mediator of protective immunity in HIV-1 infection, the factors that determine CTL antiviral efficiency are poorly understood. Two factors that have been proposed to influence CTL antiviral function are antigenic avidity and epitope specificity. In this study we evaluate these by examining the activity of(More)
BLT mice, constructed by surgical implantation of human fetal thymus-liver tissues and intravenous delivery of autologous CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells into adult non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice, were evaluated for vaccine-induced humoral immune responses. Following engraftment, these mice developed a human lymphoid system;(More)
The human cytidine deaminase Apobec3F (h-A3F), a protein related to the previously recognized antiviral factor Apobec3G (h-A3G), has antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that is suppressed by the viral protein Vif. The mechanism of HIV-1 Vif-mediated suppression of h-A3F is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that(More)
Cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) has broad antiviral activity against diverse retroviruses and/or retrotransposons, and its antiviral functions are believed to rely on its encapsidation into virions in an RNA-dependent fashion. However, the cofactors of A3G virion packaging have not yet been identified. We demonstrate here that A3G selectively interacts(More)
APOBEC3G (A3G) has broad antiviral activity against retroviruses and hepatitis B virus. However, the role of IFNs in regulating A3G during innate immunity has not been established. In this study, we show that the A3G gene is uniquely regulated by IFNs in a cell type-dependent manner. A3G was up-regulated by IFN-alpha in liver cells and macrophages, but not(More)
The cytidine deaminase apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic subunit-3 (APOBEC3) proteins have been identified as potent inhibitors of diverse retroviruses, retrotransposons and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The mechanism of APOBEC3 proteins in the control of HBV infection, however, is less clear. Here we report that APOBEC3B (A3B) displays dual inhibitory(More)