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We developed highly sensitive shuttle vector systems for detection of mutations formed in human cells using autonomously replicating derivatives of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV vectors carrying the bacterial lacI gene as the target for mutation were established in human cells and later returned to Escherichia coli for rapid detection and analysis of lacI(More)
Presenilins (PS) are required for gamma-secretase cleavage of multiple type I membrane proteins including the amyloid precursor protein and Notch and also have been implicated in regulating intracellular protein trafficking and turnover. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we reveal here a unique function of PS in the pigmentation of retinal(More)
The structure of human transmembrane pro-TNF-alpha was studied both in intact cell systems and in an in vitro translation system. In intact cell systems (LPS-induced THP-1 and TNF cDNA-transfected COS-7), a trimer of pro-TNF was detected after chemical cross-linking based on its molecular weight in Western blotting analysis. The trimer was shown to be a(More)
Using a mouse mutagenesis screen, we have identified CD83 as being critical for the development of CD4(+) T cells and for their function postactivation. CD11c(+) dendritic cells develop and function normally in mice with a mutated CD83 gene but CD4(+) T cell development is substantially reduced. Additionally, we now show that those CD4(+) cells that develop(More)
Several studies have indicated that only one cleavage site (Ala-1/Val+1) is involved in the release of mature TNF from human pro-TNF, whereas others have suggested that the linking sequence (residues -20 to -1) may be important. We previously demonstrated that a pro-TNF deletion mutant, delta -20- -1, was able to form a trimeric structure and mediate TNF(More)
Previous studies have implicated ADP-ribosylation in the mechanism of TNF cytotoxicity. In short-term 51Cr-release assays with several mouse and human tumor cell lines, the inhibitors aminobenzamide (ABA) and nicotinamide (NA) of ADP-ribosylation sensitized HER-2/neu-nonoverexpressing cells (CaOV-3 and MCF-7) but not HER-2/neu-overexpressing cells (SKOV-3(More)
Human pro-tumor necrosis factor (pro-TNF) is a type II transmembrane protein with a highly conserved 76-residue leader sequence. We have analyzed the behavior, both in a microsomal translocational system and by transfection, of a series of mutants with deletions from the cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and linking domains. Cytoplasmic deletions included the Arg(More)
We have shown that the cytotoxic response of TNF-sensitive L929 cells and TNF-resistant EMT-6 cells to TNF-alpha can be modulated by ADP-ribosylation inhibitors independently of ADP-ribosylation rates. To explore the possibility that these inhibitors modulate TNF cytotoxicity by interfering with cellular protective mechanisms, we evaluated their effects on(More)
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