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In the central nervous system, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is required for terminal differentiation of neurons within the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Given the importance of this brain region in regulating physiological homeostasis including energy balance, we asked how sf-1 gene dosage affects VMH function. Despite an apparent normal VMH(More)
The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a distinct morphological nucleus involved in feeding, fear, thermoregulation, and sexual activity. It is essentially unknown how VMH circuits underlying these innate responses develop, in part because the VMH remains poorly defined at a cellular and molecular level. Specifically, there is a paucity of(More)
Acute hypoglycemia is associated with neuronal injury in the mature human and rodent brains. Even though hypoglycemia is a common metabolic problem during development, its effects on the developing brain are not well understood. To characterize the severity of regional brain injury, postnatal day (P) 7, P14, P28 (N=20-30/age) and adult rats (N=8-12) were(More)
The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is known to mediate autonomic responses in feeding and reproductive behaviors. To date, the most definitive molecular marker for the VMN is the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). However, it is unclear whether SF-1 functions in the VMN as it does in peripheral endocrine organ development where(More)
The hippocampus develops rapidly during the late fetal and early postnatal periods. Fetal/neonatal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) alters the genomic expression, neurometabolism and electrophysiology of the hippocampus during the period of IDA and, strikingly, in adulthood despite neonatal iron treatment. To determine how early IDA affects the structural(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation plays a significant role in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury in adult rats. To determine the influence of postnatal age on PARP-1 activation, developing and adult male rats were subjected to acute hypoglycemia of equivalent severity and duration. The expression of PARP-1 and its downstream effectors,(More)
The developing limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis is highly vulnerable to programming by early-life environmental factors, including exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids and nutrient deficiencies. Early-life repetitive hypoglycemia (RHG) is a common complication of insulin therapy for type-1 diabetes that may have long-term consequences in(More)
Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency acutely alters hippocampal biochemistry, neural morphology, and electrophysiology accompanied by a downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These changes provide a cellular and molecular basis for observed short-term learning and memory impairments. However, the etiology of residual, long-term hippocampal(More)
Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency alters hippocampal neuronal morphology, reduces its volume, and is associated with acute and long-term learning impairments. However, neither the effects of early-life iron deficiency anemia on growth, differentiation, and survival of hippocampal neurons nor regulation of the neurotrophic factors that mediate these processes(More)
Iron is a necessary substrate for neuronal function throughout the lifespan, but particularly during development. Early life iron deficiency (ID) in humans (late gestation through 2-3 yr) results in persistent cognitive and behavioral abnormalities despite iron repletion. Animal models of early life ID generated using maternal dietary iron restriction also(More)