Phrabhakaran Nambiar

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The anterior loop is defined as where the mental neurovascular bundle crosses anterior to the mental foramen then doubles back to exit the mental foramen. It cannot be seen clinically but can be detected in 11-60% of panoramic radiographs. As this anatomical structure is important in determining the placement position of endosseous implants in the(More)
The uniqueness of anatomical structures and their variations provides the basis for forensic identification of unknown deceased persons. Similar to fingerprints, each frontal sinus is so distinctive and unique that the chances of two individuals having the same morphology of the frontal sinuses is extremely remote. Radiographs, especially the occipitomental(More)
We investigated 12 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in 283 unrelated Malay individuals (160 males and 123 females) living in and around Kuala Lumpur using the Investigator Argus X-12 kit. Heterozygosity among the present 12 X-STRs showed a distribution of from 55.3 to 93.5 %. The diversity values of the haplotypes constructed using four(More)
Teeth are the most durable structures in the human body. The timing and sequence of their development, as contained in dental development charts, have been used as valid criteria for age determination. The third molars however are the last teeth to erupt and are regarded as the most variable in the dentition. Age estimation in a legal context, using(More)
Bite marks left on human tissue and bitten material have become an important aspect of scientific evidence used for the conviction or acquittal of a suspect. Expert opinion has often been based on subjective comparisons rather than any objective metrical analysis and many experts will agree that there is a need to employ additional comparative tests to(More)
In a previous paper 1, we have shown that the use of an interactive shape analysis computer program ("SCIP") and the derivation of a quantitative Similarity Index 1 greatly facilitated the comparison of experimental flat wax bite marks with the dentition of various 'suspects' and the identification of the agent producing the bite. In this study, "SCIP" was(More)
AIMS The mandibular incisive nerve can be subjected to iatrogenic injury during bone graft harvesting. Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), this study aims to determine a safe zone for bone graft harvesting that avoids injuring this nerve. METHODS Sixty CBCT examinations of patients were included in this study. The examinations were taken using the(More)
We conducted a study to determine the numbers of susuks (charm needles) and their distribution in the craniofacial region of susuk wearers, and the sex, racial affiliation, and age of the wearers. In addition, we sought to determine whether the presence of susuks posed any potential hazard to patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied(More)
The teeth of the Great White Shark have been examined to ascertain whether there is any commonality in the arrangement or number of the marginal serrations (peaks) or, indeed, whether individual sharks have a unique pattern of shapes or size of the peaks. The teeth of the White Shark are characteristic in size and shape with serrations along almost the(More)
As a result of a systematic morphometric study of shark dentitions, a system of notation for describing the location of shark teeth has been developed and is proposed as a standard to be adopted for use in similar studies in the future. The macroscopic morphology of White Shark teeth has been characterised in order to gain quantitative data which might(More)