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We are proposing an extension of the recur-sive neural network that makes use of a variant of the long short-term memory architecture. The extension allows information low in parse trees to be stored in a memory register (the 'memory cell') and used much later higher up in the parse tree. This provides a solution to the vanishing gradient problem and allows(More)
Although the thymus plays a critical role in generation of immunocompetent T lymphocytes, the precise role of the epithelial component of the thymus in the induction of T cell proliferation and maturation remains unknown. Since interleukin 1 (IL 1) is required for mature T cell activation, we have determined whether human thymic epithelial (TE) cells(More)
Signal joint T cell receptor delta (TCRD) excision circles (TRECs) are episomal DNA circles generated by the DNA recombination process that is used by T lymphocytes to produce antigen-specific alpha/beta T cell receptors. Measurement of TRECs in thymocytes and peripheral blood T cells has been used to study thymus output in chickens and humans. We have(More)
The CD44 inhibitor Lutheran [In(Lu)]-related p80 molecule has recently been shown to be identical to the Hermes-1 lymphocyte homing receptor and to the human Pgp-1 molecule. We have determined the effect of addition of CD44 antibodies to in vitro activation assays of PBMC. CD44 antibodies did not induce PBMC proliferation alone, but markedly enhanced PBMC(More)
Serum amyloid P-component (SAP) is an acute-phase reactant of mice that occurs at baseline concentrations that vary over a 10-fold range among several common inbred mouse strains. The endogenous SAP levels of all strains increased to 180 to 230 micrograms/ml 24 h after an inflammatory stimulus of either thioglycollate (TG) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The(More)
The development of culture conditions for growing normal human thymic epithelial (TE) cells free from contamination with other stromal cells has allowed us to identify and characterize TE cell-derived cytokines. In this study, we report that cultured human TE cells produced CSF that supported the growth of clonal hematopoietic progenitor cells in the light(More)
Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that ethanol reduces the number of developing serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons by increasing apoptosis. We also found that 5-HT(1A) agonists attenuate the proapoptotic effects of ethanol and the ethanol-mediated reduction of fetal 5-HT neurons. These neuroprotective effects are mediated in part by the ability of(More)
Despite playing a critical role in the development of naive T cells, the thymus is involuted with age. Whether a single age-associated defect or multiple aberrations contribute to thymic involution remains controversial. Here, we determined molecular aberrations in the thymocyte and epithelium compartments of the aging thymus. We demonstrated that total(More)
Human thymic epithelial (TE) cells produce interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, and IL-6, cytokines that are important for thymocyte proliferation. The mRNAs for these cytokines are short-lived and are inducible by multiple stimuli. Thus, the steady-state levels for IL-1 and IL-6 mRNAs are critical in establishing the final cytokine protein levels.(More)