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We are proposing an extension of the recur-sive neural network that makes use of a variant of the long short-term memory architecture. The extension allows information low in parse trees to be stored in a memory register (the 'memory cell') and used much later higher up in the parse tree. This provides a solution to the vanishing gradient problem and allows(More)
Although the thymus plays a critical role in generation of immunocompetent T lymphocytes, the precise role of the epithelial component of the thymus in the induction of T cell proliferation and maturation remains unknown. Since interleukin 1 (IL 1) is required for mature T cell activation, we have determined whether human thymic epithelial (TE) cells(More)
Signal joint T cell receptor delta (TCRD) excision circles (TRECs) are episomal DNA circles generated by the DNA recombination process that is used by T lymphocytes to produce antigen-specific alpha/beta T cell receptors. Measurement of TRECs in thymocytes and peripheral blood T cells has been used to study thymus output in chickens and humans. We have(More)
The forkhead box n1 (Foxn1) transcription factor is essential for thymic organogenesis during embryonic development; however, a functional role of Foxn1 in the postnatal thymus is less well understood. We developed Foxn1 transgenic mice (Foxn1Tg), in which overexpression of Foxn1 is driven by the human keratin-14 promoter. Expression of the Foxn1 transgene(More)
Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that ethanol reduces the number of developing serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons by increasing apoptosis. We also found that 5-HT(1A) agonists attenuate the proapoptotic effects of ethanol and the ethanol-mediated reduction of fetal 5-HT neurons. These neuroprotective effects are mediated in part by the ability of(More)
Previously, this laboratory showed that in utero and in vitro ethanol exposure significantly reduces developing serotonin (5-HT) neurons and that treatment with a 5-HT1A agonist such as buspirone or ipsapirone prevents the ethanol-associated loss. The present study investigated whether ethanol decreases fetal rhombencephalic neurons, including 5-HT neurons,(More)
Previously, this laboratory demonstrated that developing serotonin (5-HT) neurons and other fetal rhombencephalic neurons are reduced by in vivo and in vitro exposure to ethanol, effects that are related to ethanol's augmentation of apoptosis. We also found that 5-HT1A agonists diminished the ethanol-associated reduction of 5-HT neurons and other fetal(More)
Intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to environmental AGS: Activation of lamina propria (LP) T cells by luminal Ags may lead to the production of inflammatory cytokines and subsequent mucosal inflammation and tissue damage. However, in normal circumstances, LP T cells do not respond to antigenic stimulation. The mechanisms of this unresponsiveness in(More)
Despite playing a critical role in the development of naive T cells, the thymus is involuted with age. Whether a single age-associated defect or multiple aberrations contribute to thymic involution remains controversial. Here, we determined molecular aberrations in the thymocyte and epithelium compartments of the aging thymus. We demonstrated that total(More)