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Adult vertebrates require a continuous supply of osteoblasts for both bone remodeling and regeneration during fracture repair. This implies the existence of a reservoir of cells in the body capable of osteogenesis. One source of these osteoprogenitors is the stem cells within the fibroblastic component of bone marrow stroma. Mature osteoblasts are(More)
During the process of endochondral bone formation, proliferating chondrocytes give rise to hypertrophic chondrocytes, which then deposit a mineralized matrix to form calcified cartilage. Chondrocyte hypertrophy and matrix mineralization are associated with expression of type X collagen and the induction of high levels of the bone/liver/kidney isozyme of(More)
Numerous studies of experimental hypo- and hypervitaminosis A have long suggested that retinoic acid (RA) is involved in chondrocyte maturation during endochondral ossification and skeletogenesis. However, the specific and direct roles of RA in these complex processes remain unclear. Based on recent studies from our laboratories, we tested the hypothesis(More)
Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the(More)
The differentiation of adipocytic and osteogenic cells has been investigated in cultures of adult rat marrow stromal cells. Adipocytic differentiation was assessed using morphological criteria, changes in expression of procollagen mRNAs, consistent with a switch from the synthesis of predominantly fibrillar (types I and III) to basement membrane (type IV)(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) promote the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, and also induce osteogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) from rats and mice. However, compared to results with animal models, BMPs are relatively inefficient in inducing human MSC to undergo osteogenesis, and are much less effective in promoting bone formation in(More)
Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) are the major source of osteoblasts for bone remodeling and repair in postnatal animals. Rodent MSC cultured with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) differentiate into osteoblasts, but most human MSC show a poor osteogenic response to BMPs. In this study we demonstrate that BMP-induced osteogenesis in poorly responsive human(More)
Most investigators are cognizant of the problems inherent in counting cells embedded in a complex and abundant extracellular matrix. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a new method of isolating nucleic acids from chondrocytes which facilitates measurement of cell number by DNA analysis. Chondrocytes were isolated from chick embryo sterna and grown(More)
To map transcriptional events associated with mineralization in developing long bones, we have established protocols for preparing RNA from regions of chick epiphyseal cartilage. Using these RNA preparations, we have probed for appearance of mRNA coding for type I, II, and X collagen, as well as osteonectin and calmodulin. Type II collagen mRNA was found in(More)
In serum-containing medium, ascorbic acid induces maturation of prehypertrophic chick embryo sternal chondrocytes. Recently, cultured chondrocytes have also been reported to undergo maturation in the presence of bone morphogenetic proteins or in serum-free medium supplemented with thyroxine. In the present study, we have examined the combined effect of(More)