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It is well recognised that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are spread by sexual activity, but the possibility of non-sexual transmission remains controversial. We present evidence for vertical transmission from at least 30% HPV positive mothers to their infants, resulting in persistent infection in children. That the mother is the source of infant(More)
There are few data on the persistence of individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations in the absence of selective drug pressure. We studied 313 patients in whom TDR mutations were detected at their first resistance test and who had a subsequent test performed while ART-naive. The rate at which mutations(More)
Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), is the most significant risk factor for cervical cancer and it may be possible to prevent this malignancy by immunisation. Before immunisation programmes can be designed, however, it is necessary to know the age of acquisition and all routes of infection for these viruses. Sexual transmission is well(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE We determine whether a patient education intervention based on a previously validated model increases satisfaction with emergency department (ED) care. METHODS A single-page patient education form was distributed on alternating 2-week time blocks for 8 weeks at the triage desk of a single academic ED. Alert, discharged patients were(More)
An outbreak of parvovirus B19 infection at a primary school was investigated using saliva samples. Antibody capture immunoassays for salivary B19 IgG and IgM were developed using a recombinant B19 antigen and monoclonal antibody to B19 virus. Evaluation of the salivary IgG assay using paired serum and saliva samples from 43 staff at St Thomas' Hospital(More)
BACKGROUND Bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients at risk of developing cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis are identified routinely by the early detection of virus in blood. For early diagnosis of CMV infection, the RNA-based approach demonstrates advantages when compared with the current CMV antigen and DNA detection methods. OBJECTIVES We have evaluated(More)
The development of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect low concentrations of human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) DNA for epidemiological studies is described. The PCR utilises primers located in the E5 open reading frame, has an analytical sensitivity of 4 HPV-16 genomes and does not produce amplicons from other common genital HPVs(More)
Zidovudine monotherapy is used to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in women with low viral loads. There are few data on the risk of drug resistance in this select cohort of women. We determined the prevalence of newly acquired mutations conferring reduced sensitivity to zidovudine after exposure during pregnancy, and found that the development of mutations(More)
The ability to utilize maltose, as determined by measurement of oxygen uptake, is used to differentiate Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) and M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (all strains negative) from other members of the M. mycoides cluster (M. mycoides subsp. capri, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony (LC), M. capricolum(More)