Phillip P. Woodson

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Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent(More)
The reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in 12 normal humans. After 2 forced exposure days on which subjects received color-coded capsules containing either caffeine (100, 200, 400 or 600 mg) or placebo, subjects had a choice day on which they chose which one of the two types of color-coded capsules would(More)
This study investigated the effects of terminating low dose levels of caffeine (100 mg/day) in 7 normal humans. Substitution of placebo capsules for caffeine capsules occurred under double-blind conditions while subjects rated various dimensions of their mood and behavior. In the first phase of the study, substitution of placebo for 12 consecutive days(More)
Three types of experimental studies are reviewed: (1) intravenous and oral caffeine self-administration by laboratory animals, (2) oral caffeine self-administration by humans, and (3) human subjective effects of caffeine relevant to reinforcing effects. These studies show that, under appropriate conditions, caffeine can serve as a reinforcer and can produce(More)
The present study relates subject-paced rapid information processing to different components of event-related brain potentials in an attempt to gain more information about changes in mental performance in relation to alveolar smoke absorption as assessed by expired air CO measurement. The task consisted in the presentation of pseudorandom sequences of(More)
Short-term deprivation effects on smoking-induced heart rate response and smoking behavior were compared in consistently high and low CO absorbing smokers, suggested to depend differentially on smoking and/or nicotine. The subjects came to the laboratory for two afternoon sessions and smoked at 1 p.m. and at 5 p.m. both after previous free smoking and(More)
The effects of smoking cigarettes differing in nicotine content (0.14 vs 1.34 mg/cigarette) on the peak-to-peak amplitude and peak latency of the human averaged visual evoked response (AVER) were measured in 10 male smokers after a 2-hr smoking deprivation period. The AVER was obtained under five different flash intensities. Eight different peaks were(More)
The effects of nicotine were measured on the averaged visual evoked response (AVER) through the use of two types of experimental cigarettes which differed only in nicotine content (i.e., 0.14 vs. 1.34 mg/cig.). The results indicate that the restorative and/or enhancing effects of cigarette smoking on peak amplitudes are due predominantly to nicotine's(More)
The present experiment describes an attempt to select differentially nicotine dependent smokers by means of an objective and non-invasive measure of cigarette smoke CO absorption. Toward this goal the differences in expiratory tidal air CO concentration before and after smoking a single cigarette (tidal CO boost) were measured in three experimental(More)