Phillip Nieburg

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BACKGROUND Most HIV-infection in children occurs in sub-Saharan Africa where antiretroviral therapy is seldom available. This study compares the growth progression and retardation of HIV-infected and uninfected children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). It estimates the risk for child growth retardation according to child and maternal(More)
The WHO international growth reference was reviewed to identify characteristics that might affect the interpretation of anthropometric indicators derived from it. Discontinuities were found at the junction point of the two distinct data sets from which the reference curves are derived. Also, the Z-score derived percentile curves for weight-for-age and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine demographic and behavioural factors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection among brothel based and other female sex workers (FSWs) in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. METHODS Data were collected from questionnaires, physical examinations, and laboratory evaluations on Thai FSWs enrolled(More)
The term "failure to thrive" (FTT) has been used for more than 50 years to describe the infant or young child whose growth falls substantially behind that of his or her peers. Currently, the predominant use of FTT is to describe a child's growth failure resulting from caloric or maternal deprivation or both. Despite widespread use, the term FTT lacks a(More)
Breast-fed infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers in Kinshasa, Zaire, were monitored a mean of 18 months. HIV infection in infants was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HIV culture, or ELISA. PCR test results for HIV DNA on venous blood drawn from children ages 0-2 days and 3-5 months were used to estimate(More)
In the disaster relief programme for Kampuchean refugees in Thailand, epidemiological techniques were incorporated into the health-planning process during the first 2 weeks of the refugee influx. The findings influenced not only health care in the first refugee camp but also the delivery of medical services in subsequent camps. The mortality rate in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a short-course zidovudine program to prevent perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in sub-Saharan African country settings. DESIGN AND SETTING Several clinical trials of short-course zidovudine during pregnancy for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV are under way in(More)
Measles is a major cause of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in developing countries. Hospital and community-based studies of ALRI have found that measles accounts for 6%-21% of the morbidity and 8%-93% of the mortality due to ALRI. Although live attenuated measles vaccine is one of the most effective vaccines in use today, measles has not been(More)