Phillip L Casterton

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R,R-Monatin is an intensely sweet substance originally identified in the root bark of Sclerochiton ilicifolius. R,R-Monatin salt, commonly known as "arruva", has potential for use as a high-potency sweetener food ingredient. Previously, arruva was concluded to present no toxicologically relevant effects to Crl:CD(SD) rats and Crl:CD-1(ICR) mice fed up to(More)
The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two(More)
The CTFA Evaluation of Alternatives Program is an evaluation of the relationship between data from the Draize primary eye irritation test and comparable data from a selection of promising in vitro eye irritation tests. In Phase III, data from the Draize test and 41 in vitro endpoints on 25 representative surfactant-based personal care formulations were(More)
PURPOSE Various ocular alkali burn classification schemes have been published and used to grade human chemical eye injuries for the purpose of identifying treatments and forecasting outcomes. The ILSI chemical eye injury classification scheme was developed for the additional purpose of collecting detailed human eye injury data to provide information on the(More)
The availability of an in vitro test system to replace animal testing of potential irritants is becoming more and more urgent especially in Europe as a consequence of the European Community Cosmetics Directive. To evaluate the ability of Advanced Tissue Sciences' (ATS) ZK1301 skin model to predict the skin irritation potential of surfactants, we performed a(More)
[14C]-Labeled arruva [sodium/potassium (2R,4R)-2-amino-4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-5-(3-indolyl) pentanoate] was administered as a single gavage dose (10 mg/kg bw) to male and female Beagle dogs and 1 bile duct-cannulated male. The mean peak arruva plasma concentration equivalent of 1.2 µg/g occurred at first sampling time point of 1 hour postdosing. The mean area(More)
The measurement of hydrogen in exhaled breath is widely accepted as a non-invasive yet efficient means to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption. Hydrogen is not normally produced by mammalian cells and its appearance in breath indicates incomplete small intestinal carbohydrate absorption with subsequent breakdown of the carbohydrate by anaerobic bacteria in(More)
The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Evaluation of Alternatives Program is an evaluation of the relationship between Draize ocular safety test data and comparable data from a selection of in vitro tests. In Phase II, 18 representative oil/water-based personal-care formulations were subjected to the Draize primary eye safety test and 30 in(More)
Arruva, the R,R-isomer of monatin (sodium/potassium 2R,4R-2-amino-4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-5-(3-indolyl) pentanoate), an intense sweetener originally identified in root bark of the South African shrub Schlerochitin ilicifolius, was examined for its mutagenic and genotoxic potential via bacterial reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma and in vivo mouse micronucleus(More)
11 surfactant raw materials with potential applications in light-duty liquid cleaning products were evaluated in vitro using a human skin analogue (ATS SKIN(2) Model ZK1100) for predicting cytotoxicity (MTT reduction) and inflammation [prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release]. Two of the 11 raw materials, both in the same compound family, were selected to be(More)