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Mapping and complementation analysis with 17 phototaxis mutations has established 11 complementation groups phoA-phoK distributed over six linkage groups. Statistical calculations from the complementation data yielded 17 as the maximum likelihood estimate of the number of pho genes assuming all loci are equally mutable. Most of the phototaxis mutants were(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can trigger broad inflammatory responses that elicit rapid innate immunity and promote the activities of lymphocytes, which can potentially enhance adoptive immunotherapy in the tumor-bearing setting. In the present study, we found that Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid [Poly(I:C)] and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 [CpG],(More)
Two rat calcitonin receptor isoforms have been identified by cDNA cloning from a hypothalamic library. The clones, C1a and C1b, specified proteins of 478 and 515 amino acids, respectively. The clones were identical, except that the C1b sequence encoded a 37-amino acid insert in the second extracellular domain, which conferred altered ligand recognition.(More)
Using gene-expression data from over 6,000 breast cancer patients, we report herein that high CD73 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Because anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens are standard treatment for TNBC, we investigated the relationship between CD73 and anthracycline efficacy. In TNBC(More)
Tumor cells are usually weakly immunogenic as they largely express self-antigens and can down-regulate major histocompatability complex/peptide molecules and critical costimulatory ligands. The challenge for immunotherapies has been to provide vigorous immune effector cells that circumvent these tumor escape mechanisms and eradicate established tumors. One(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are potent immune effector cells that can respond to infection and cancer, as well as allowing maternal adaptation to pregnancy. In response to malignant transformation or pathogenic invasion, NK cells can secrete cytokine and may be directly cytolytic, as well as exerting effects indirectly through other cells of the immune(More)
In the MD45 mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) hybridoma cell line, we have expressed a chimeric receptor, consisting of the single-chain variable domains (scFv) of anti-carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) mAb linked to Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaR) chain via a CD8 hinge. Transfected MD45 subclones lysed CEA-positive human colon carcinoma cell lines in an(More)
Tumors use several strategies to evade immunosurveillance. One such mechanism is the generation of adenosine within the tumor microenvironment, which potently suppresses antitumor T cell responses. Adenosine within the tumor is generated by CD73, a membrane-bound nucleotidase that is expressed by tumor cells, suppressive immune subsets such as T regulatory(More)
T cells have the capacity to eradicate diseased cells, but tumours present considerable challenges that render T cells ineffectual. Cancer cells often make themselves almost 'invisible' to the immune system, and they sculpt a microenvironment that suppresses T cell activity, survival and migration. Genetic engineering of T cells can be used therapeutically(More)
We have investigated the primary immunity generated in vivo by MHC class I-deficient and -competent tumor cell lines that expressed the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early inducible-1 (Rae-1) beta. Rae-1beta expression on class I-deficient RMA-S lymphoma cells enhanced primary NK cell-mediated tumor rejection in vivo, whereas RMA-Rae-1beta tumor cells were(More)