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Soil acidification is a major problem in soils of intensive Chinese agricultural systems. We used two nationwide surveys, paired comparisons in numerous individual sites, and several long-term monitoring-field data sets to evaluate changes in soil acidity. Soil pH declined significantly (P < 0.001) from the 1980s to the 2000s in the major Chinese(More)
Biogeosciences Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in BG if available. Abstract Chinese grasslands are extensive natural ecosystems that comprise 40 % of the total land area of the country and are sensitive to N deposition. A field experiment with six N(More)
We estimated the maximum and minimum emission factors of paddy fields using the original raw data and log-and cube root-transformed data, and the defined class interval according to the difference between the maximum and minimum and the number of classifications, here calculated in accordance with 10 groups. Linear interpolation was applied to calculate the(More)
This special session adresses the problems that designers face when implementing analogand digital circuits in nanometer technologies. An introductory embedded tutorial will give an overview of the design problems at hand : the leakage power and process variability and their implications for digital circuits and memories, and the reducing supply voltages,(More)
Functional yield is a term used to describe the percentage of dies on a wafer that fail due to catastrophic defects. Within the interconnect these defects are usually caused by particle contamination and are divided into bridging defects, which join adjacent wires, and cuts, which result in broken wires. The probability of failure is therefore determined by(More)
  • Dessislava Nikolova, Sébastien Rumley, David Calhoun, Qi Li, Robert Hendry, Payman Samadi +209 others
  • 2015
With the rapidly increasing aggregate bandwidth requirements of data centers there is a growing interest in the insertion of optically interconnected networks with high-radix transparent optical switch fabrics. Silicon photonics is a particularly promising and applicable technology due to its small footprint, CMOS compatibility, high bandwidth density, and(More)
This work examines the impact of interstratal interconnect density on the wire-length distribution and on the performance of three-dimensional integrated circuits. A model for the wire-length distribution of 3D-ICs, which takes into account the interstratal interconnect density, is proposed first. The wire-length distributions of 2D-IC, homogeneous (ideal),(More)
Even though agronomists have considered the spatial root distribution of plants to be important for interspecific interactions in agricultural intercropping, few experimental studies have quantified patterns of root distribution and their impacts on interspecific interactions in agroforestry systems. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the(More)