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Human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) have been identified in adult bone marrow, but little is known about their presence during fetal life. MSCs were isolated and characterized in first-trimester fetal blood, liver, and bone marrow. When 10(6) fetal blood nucleated cells (median gestational age, 10(+2) weeks [10 weeks, 2 days]) were cultured in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of cervical excision for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia on fertility and early pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. DATA SOURCES Medline and Embase. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Studies assessing fertility and early pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of treatment for(More)
Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother. It has long been established that a bias from the T helper 1 cytokine profile towards the T helper 2 profile contributes towards successful pregnancy maintenance. The majority of publications that(More)
The change of fundamental voice frequency in continuous speech in female puberty was analysed in 47 girls by comparison of 2000 consecutive electroglottographic cycles in a reading situation. The results were compared with serum concentrations of androgens (dihydroepiandrosterone, delta-4-androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin),(More)
Human labour is associated with increased prostaglandin synthesis within the fetal membranes. We have studied the expression of the two isoforms of the central prostaglandin synthetic enzyme, cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), in human fetal membranes throughout pregnancy, at mRNA, protein and activity levels. COX-1 mRNA expression was low in human amnion(More)
The composition and structure of the pregnancy vaginal microbiome may influence susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies on the pregnant vaginal microbiome have largely been limited to Northern American populations. Using MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we characterised the vaginal microbiota of a mixed British cohort of women (n =(More)
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is the archetypal smooth muscle relaxant, mediating the effects of many hormones and drugs. However, recently PGI(2) , acting via cAMP/PKA, was found to increase contraction-associated protein expression in myometrial cells and to promote oxytocin-driven myometrial contractility. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in(More)
Fetal membranes from term human pregnancies produce prostaglandins, and may respond to bacterial endotoxin or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) with increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The effects of endotoxin persisted for up to 24 h, whereas those of IL-1 beta were maximal 4-8 h after addition. The maximum levels of PGE2 (200-350 pg/ml) were(More)
The uterine expression of the chemokine IL8 increases dramatically with the onset of labour both at term and preterm. The IL8 promoter contains binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP). In this study we investigated the roles of these transcription(More)