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The vast majority of fragile-X full mutations are heavily methylated throughout the expanded CGG repeat and the surrounding CpG island. Hypermethylation initiates and/or stabilizes transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene, which causes the fragile X-syndrome phenotype characterized, primarily, by mental retardation. The relation between repeat(More)
We describe an efficient method for generating highly functional membrane proteins with variant amino acids at defined positions that couples a modified site saturation strategy with functional genetic selection. We applied this method to the production of a cysteine-less variant of the Crithidia fasciculata inosine-guanosine permease CfNT2 to facilitate(More)
Purines and pyrimidines are indispensable to all life, performing many vital functions for cells: ATP serves as the universal currency of cellular energy, cAMP and cGMP are key second messenger molecules, purine and pyrimidine nucleotides are precursors for activated forms of both carbohydrates and lipids, nucleotide derivatives of vitamins are essential(More)
In Leishmania mexicana parasites, a unique glucose transporter, LmxGT1, is selectively targeted to the flagellar membrane, suggesting a possible sensory role that is often associated with ciliary membrane proteins. Expression of LmxGT1 is down-regulated ∼20-fold by increasing cell density but is up-regulated ∼50-fold by depleting glucose from the medium,(More)
A cis-acting methylation center that signals de novo DNA methylation is located upstream of the mouse Aprt gene. In the current study, two approaches were taken to determine if tandem B1 repetitive elements found at the 3' end of the methylation center contribute to the methylation signal. First, bisulfite genomic sequencing demonstrated that CpG sites(More)
Mutations within the polyamine biosynthetic pathway of Leishmania donovani, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis, confer polyamine auxotrophy to the insect vector or promastigote form of the parasite. However, whether the infectious or amastigote form of the parasite requires an intact polyamine pathway has remained an open question. To address(More)
The promoter region of the mouse adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) gene contains one non-consensus Sp1 binding site at its 5' end followed by three consensus Sp1 binding sites. The two 3'-most binding sites are sufficient for maximal expression of aprt , suggesting that the non-consensus and consensus binding sites at the 5' end are redundant.(More)
Mouse Aprt constructs that are highly susceptible to DNA methylation-associated inactivation in embryonal carcinoma cells were transfected into differentiated cells, where they were expressed. Construct silencing was induced by either whole-cell fusion of the expressing differentiated cells with embryonal carcinoma cells or by treatment of the(More)
The LmxGT1 glucose transporter is selectively targeted to the flagellum of the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania mexicana, but the mechanism for targeting this and other flagella-specific membrane proteins among the Kinetoplastida is unknown. To address the mechanism of flagellar targeting, we employed in vivo cross-linking, tandem affinity purification,(More)
Leishmania are auxotrophic for purines, and consequently purine acquisition from the host is a requisite nutritional function for the parasite. Both adenylosuccinate synthetase (ADSS) and adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL) have been identified as vital components of purine salvage in Leishmania donovani, and therefore Δadss and Δasl null mutants were constructed(More)