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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for normal embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and cellular differentiation, but how miRNA gene expression is controlled by the key transcriptional regulators of ES cells has not been established. We describe here the transcriptional regulatory circuitry of ES cells that incorporates protein-coding and miRNA genes based on(More)
Messenger RNA (mRNA) stability, localization, and translation are largely determined by sequences in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). We found a conserved increase in expression of mRNAs terminating at upstream polyadenylation sites after activation of primary murine CD4+ T lymphocytes. This program, resulting in shorter 3'UTRs, is a characteristic of(More)
Developmental programs are controlled by transcription factors and chromatin regulators, which maintain specific gene expression programs through epigenetic modification of the genome. These regulatory events at enhancers contribute to the specific gene expression programs that determine cell state and the potential for differentiation into new cell types.(More)
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directs the sequence-specific degradation of mRNA through a process known as RNA interference (RNAi). Using a recently developed Drosophila in vitro system, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying RNAi. We find that RNAi is ATP dependent yet uncoupled from mRNA translation. During the RNAi reaction, both strands of the(More)
Recruitment of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription initiation apparatus to promoters by specific DNA-binding transcription factors is well recognized as a key regulatory step in gene expression. We report here that promoter-proximal pausing is a general feature of transcription by Pol II in mammalian cells and thus an additional step where(More)
Specific short oligonucleotide sequences that enhance pre-mRNA splicing when present in exons, termed exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), play important roles in constitutive and alternative splicing. A computational method, RESCUE-ESE, was developed that predicts which sequences have ESE activity by statistical analysis of exon-intron and splice site(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that suppress translation of specific mRNAs. The miRNA machinery interacts with fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which functions as translational repressor. We show that miR-125b and miR-132, as well as several other miRNAs, are associated with FMRP in mouse brain. miR-125b and miR-132 had largely opposing(More)
Transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is thought to occur unidirectionally from most genes. Here, we present evidence of widespread divergent transcription at protein-encoding gene promoters. Transcription start site-associated RNAs (TSSa-RNAs) nonrandomly flank active promoters, with peaks of antisense and sense short RNAs at 250(More)
MicroRNAs are predicted to regulate thousands of mammalian genes, but relatively few targets have been experimentally validated and few microRNA loss-of-function phenotypes have been assigned. As an alternative to chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides, we developed microRNA inhibitors that can be expressed in cells, as RNAs produced from(More)
A typical gene contains two levels of information: a sequence that encodes a particular protein and a host of other signals that are necessary for the correct expression of the transcript. While much attention has been focused on the effects of sequence variation on the amino acid sequence, variations that disrupt gene processing signals can dramatically(More)