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BACKGROUND Many infants with Down syndrome (DS) have co-occurring congenital malformations requiring intensive surgical and medical management. To anticipate the care needed by these infants, providers and parents require accurate information about birth defects that may be present. This article uses a unique national hospital discharge dataset to identify(More)
Convergent evolution, the repeated evolution of similar phenotypes in independent lineages, provides natural replicates to study mechanisms of evolution. Cases of convergent evolution might have the same underlying developmental and genetic bases, implying that some evolutionary trajectories might be predictable. In a classic example of convergent(More)
Developmental genetic studies of evolved differences in morphology have led to the hypothesis that cis-regulatory changes often underlie morphological evolution. However, because most of these studies focus on evolved loss of traits, the genetic architecture and possible association with cis-regulatory changes of gain traits are less understood. Here we(More)
Teeth are a classic model system of organogenesis, as repeated and reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions pattern placode formation and outgrowth. Less is known about the developmental and genetic bases of tooth formation and replacement in polyphyodonts, which are vertebrates with continual tooth replacement. Here, we leverage natural variation(More)
In convergent evolution, similar phenotypes evolve repeatedly in independent populations, often reflecting adaptation to similar environments. Understanding whether convergent evolution proceeds via similar or different genetic and developmental mechanisms offers insight towards the repeatability and predictability of evolution. Oceanic populations of(More)
The ligands of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) family of developmental signaling molecules are often under the control of complex cis-regulatory modules and play diverse roles in vertebrate development and evolution. Here, we investigated the cis-regulatory control of stickleback Bmp6. We identified a 190bp enhancer ~2.5 kilobases 5' of the Bmp6 gene(More)
The extent to which convergent adaptation to similar ecological niches occurs by a predictable genetic basis remains a fundamental question in biology. Threespine stickleback fish have undergone an adaptive radiation in which ancestral oceanic populations repeatedly colonized and adapted to freshwater habitats. In multiple lakes in British Columbia, two(More)
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