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BACKGROUND Most studies of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in Asia have found low rates, and few Asian countries use Hib vaccine in routine immunisation programmes. Whether Hib disease truly is rare or whether many cases remain undetected is unclear. METHODS To estimate incidences of vaccine-preventable Hib pneumonia and meningitis among(More)
Multiple health priorities, limited human resources and logistical capacities, as well as expensive vaccines with limited funds available increase the need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs. The aim of the Supporting Independent Immunization and Vaccine Advisory Committees (SIVAC) Initiative is to support countries in the(More)
A combined enhanced inactivated polio vaccine (EIPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) programme was introduced in Israel in 1990, with the purpose of providing a solution to the persistent polio morbidity in spite of a 30 year long OPV programme. The schedule comprised two doses of EIPV administered at the age of 2 and 4 months, intercalated with two doses of(More)
After the first tests of this vaccine in Egypt (1972) and in the Sudan (1973), two controlled tests in the field were performed in two high-risk areas for meningitis: --firstly, in the region of Koudougou (Upper-Volta), in November-December 1973 (17,300 vaccines). Its major aim was to solve operational and logistical problems; --secondly, in the Koutiala(More)
The immunologic response to inactivated poliovirus vaccine following one and two doses has been studied in infants in developing and developed countries using vaccine prepared at the Rijks Instituut voor de Volksgezondheit, The Netherlands. Virus was grown in microcarrier cultures of monkey kidney cells, purified, concentrated, and inactivated with(More)
This paper contains a summary of the principles upon which the preparation and use of killed poliovirus vaccine (KPV) are based, as well as a summary of earlier and more recent work suggesting the feasibility of formulating a KPV preparation that would be fully and durably effective in a one- or two-dose regimen. The essential factor in the preparation of(More)
To establish the antigen content of a killed poliovirus vaccine sufficiently potent to induce immunity with one or two doses and to establish a reference standard vaccine which has been tested under field conditions, a titration was carried out in infants to determine the amount of each of the three antigenic types of poliovirus vaccine required to induce(More)
BACKGROUND Fixed laboratory capacity in Africa may be inadequate; mobile microbiological laboratories may address this issue but their utility has seldom been evaluated. METHODS During 2012, the Benin Ministry of Health requested mobile microbiological laboratory (LaboMobil®) support following the failure of polysaccharide meningococcal A+C vaccine to(More)
In an effort to produce a strong humoral and cellular immune response that might protect against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, groups of five rhesus macaques each were immunized intramuscularly at 0, 2 and 6 months with 100 micrograms of an inactivated preparation of SIV/Delta B670 in either an oil-in-water emulsion with Ribi Detox,(More)
Combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-killed poliovirus vaccine was used (along with bacille Calmette-Guérin, measles, yellow fever, and smallpox vaccines) in a routine immunization program in a rural area of Senegal. A control group in a neighboring region received DTP vaccine without poliovirus vaccine. All immunizations were given at two sessions(More)